ItemEffect of drought conditions on the diet of insectivorous bat species: a molecular diet studyKuzdak, Kaitlin Frances; Ammerman, Loren K; Dowler, Robert; Negovetich, Nicholas; Singg, SangeetaThe effect of drought on the diets of four insectivorous bat species (Antrozous pallidus, Myotis thysanodes, M. yumanensis, and Parastrellus hesperus) was assessed using cytochrome oxidase-I mini-barcodes organized into molecular operational taxonomic units. I hypothesized that there would be a significant difference between diet diversity in the drought and non-drought years, the species would feed more opportunistically during the drought year, per optimal foraging theory, and there would be low dietary overlap between years. Fecal samples were collected in Big Bend National Park (Brewster Co., TX). Diet diversity differed between years for all species, excluding A. pallidus. Diet diversity was greater during the drought year for A. pallidus and P. hesperus. Antrozous pallidus exhibited high dietary overlap (0.608) between the years and overlap values for the other three species was low (0.027 - 0.149). Overall, no two bat species in this analysis changed their diet similarly in response to drought conditions. ItemConservation Status of the Plains Spotted Skunk in TexasPerkins, James Clinton.; Dowler, Robert C; Skipper, Ben R; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Bailey, Dionne TResearch of rare or understudied species often benefits from the use of multiple methods and survey techniques. The potentially endangered plains spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius interrupta) is an uncommon mephitid historically distributed throughout much of Texas. To assess the status of the skunk, I collected presence data using both field surveys and crowd source methods. Field surveys were conducted throughout the state using live traps, trail cameras, and track plates. Additional presence data were also compiled from academic, wildlife, and citizen scientists’ groups. Skunk presence data were used to create a species distribution model. The model predicts that the skunk is still widely distributed in Texas. The results of the project indicate that the skunk has low localized abundance, but there are at least 2 areas with high local abundance: native prairies northwest of Houston and mixed oak/juniper forests in the Cross Timbers ecoregion. ItemFemale Perpetrated Terrorism and Suicide BombingsWillows, Amanda Ann; Celso, Anthony N; Taylor, William A; Bechtol, Bruce E; Serrano, GabriellaHistorically, women have played important roles in terrorist organizations. The roles of women in terrorist organizations, however, have been more supportive than militant. The duties given to these women were to reproduce, providing more fighters and supporting and caring for the men as they fought and gathered intelligence. In recent decades, female roles in terrorist organizations have changed and they are being utilized in more instrumental ways. Females who have lost their husbands and loved ones to government forces appear to be ideal for recruitment. Their male counterparts have discovered their usefulness on the front lines as the ultimate smart bombs. In this study, we seek to gain a better understanding of female perpetrated terrorism and the etiology of female suicide bombers. ItemEndoparasites of the digestive systems of four species of pocket gophers (Genus: Geomys) in TexasLebrasseur, Kaitlynn Marie; Dowler, Robert C; Ammerman, Loren K; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Burt, M. Scott; Hama, MarkThe 9 species of pocket gophers in the state of Texas are ecologically interesting in that their ranges overlap very little, leading to genetic and chromosomal variation in both pocket gopher hosts and their parasites. We examined 4 species of pocket gopher (Geomys attwateri, G. bursarius, G. personatus, and G. texensis) in Texas for helminth parasites of the digestive system. Both nematodes and cestodes were collected. Only 1 species of nematode was collected, and it was collected from all 4 pocket gopher species representing four new host records for the nematode Protospirura ascaroidea. Cestodes recovered were from two genera: Monoecocestus and Hymenolepis. There was no significant difference in prevalence or intensity of nematodes in pocket gopher hosts. Prevalence of cestode parasites varied significantly between G. bursarius and G. texensis. Intensity of cestode parasites did not differ significantly between species. ItemTHE EFFECTS OF SEMEN THAW PROCEDURES ON ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION SUCCESS RATE IN FIRST CALF FEMALESZoeller, Audrey Grace; Runyan, Chase A; Salisbury, Micheal W; Kellermeier, John D; Mason, Carolyn RThe focus of this study is to investigate the effect of semen thaw procedures following a timed AI protocol in first calf females. British cross (Angus, Hereford) cows (n = 241) were synchronized utilizing a 7-day Co-Synch protocol. Females were randomly divided into 2 breeding days and received either technician thawed semen or water regulated thawed semen. Pregnancy status × thaw method did not prove to be statistically significant (P = 0.51), neither did pregnancy status × AI technician (P = 0.97) or pregnancy status × AI day (P = 0.30). The probability of pregnancy for TT and WR was not different (P = 0.53). ItemCuranderismo and Mental Health: Mexican and Mexican-American Beliefs, Attitudes, and AcculturationRamirez, Kelsie Lozano; Curtis, Drew A; Contreras, Jose A; Lee, Jungeun; Self, Raelye TThis study explored the effects of generation on Mexican and Mexican-American beliefs about mental illness, their willingness to seek out psychological help, and their beliefs and attitudes about curanderismo, a Mexican folk-healing practice. This study utilized a convenience sample from four locations. Participants were split into two groups: Group 1 consisted of Mexicans or 1st and 2nd generation Mexican-Americans and Group 2 included participants who reported being 3rd, 4th, or 5th generation Mexican-Americans. The findings of the study indicated no significant differences between the two generation groups on beliefs and attitudes toward curanderismo, attitudes toward psychotherapy and psychotherapists, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. There was a statistically significant difference in the scores between the two generation groups on beliefs toward mental illness. Implications of research and practice are discussed. ItemCuranderismo and Mental Health: Mexican and Mexican-American Beliefs, Attitudes, and AcculturationRamirez, Kelsie Lozano; Curtis, Drew A; Contreras, Jose A; Lee, Jungeun; Self, Raelye TThis study explored the effects of generation on Mexican and Mexican-American beliefs about mental illness, their willingness to seek out psychological help, and their beliefs and attitudes about curanderismo, a Mexican folk-healing practice. This study utilized a convenience sample from four locations. Participants were split into two groups: Group 1 consisted of Mexicans or 1st and 2nd generation Mexican-Americans and Group 2 included participants who reported being 3rd, 4th, or 5th generation Mexican-Americans. The findings of the study indicated no significant differences between the two generation groups on beliefs and attitudes toward curanderismo, attitudes toward psychotherapy and psychotherapists, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. There was a statistically significant difference in the scores between the two generation groups on beliefs toward mental illness. Implications of research and practice are discussed. ItemPOPULATION ANALYSIS OF CHRYSINA WOODII (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE) IN THE DAVIS MOUNTAINS OF WEST TEXASMaddox, Timothy Glenn; Strenth, Ned E; Skipper, Ben R; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Havlak, Karl JThis study examined the seasonal dynamics of a population of Wood’s jewel scarab inhabiting the primitive equestrian site located in the Davis Mountain State Park of west Texas. Mark and recapture techniques were conducted on adults of Chrysina woodii from July 2015 to October 2016 to determine population size, sex ratios, survival rates and dispersal capabilities. Population estimates and survival rates were estimated for both sexes using the POPAN Jolly-Seber model and the Cormack-Jolly Seber model in Program MARK. Beetles were determined to be highly mobile, capable of traveling between sites along the length of Limpia Creek. During peak activity in July and August, an estimated ~1900 (827-4874 ±95% CI) adult C. woodii travel through the primitive site during 2015 and ~ 2100 (527- 8389 ±95% CI) for the 2016 season. Sex ratios appear skewed with more males captured than females, and survival rates did not vary drastically between sexes. ItemGenetic structure and differentiation within the eastern spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius): a microsatellite analysisShaffer, Alexandra AnnMarie; Dowler, Robert C; Ammerman, Loren K; Negovetich, Nicholas N; Tasker, Twyla J; Keith, Susan EThe fluctuating nature of eastern spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius) populations over the past century has prompted concern over their conservation status, especially since this species is encountered infrequently and is relatively understudied. Although S. putorius is regarded as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, with the plains subspecies, S. p. interrupta, being considered for endangered species status, the genetic diversity and structure of the species is unknown. To enable genetic comparisons among the 3 subspecies, as well as to test the validity of the subspecies designations, tissue samples (n = 81) were analyzed across 11 cross-species microsatellite loci. Structure analyses indicated the presence of 3 clusters commensurate with morphological subspecies designations. The minimal gene flow and strong genetic differentiation (FST > 0.195) present among subspecies indicate the need to consider each as a unique evolutionarily significant unit, as these genetic differences could reflect behavioral, physiological, or habitat differences. ItemAssessment of a Proposed Method of Trypanosoma cruzi Detection in Frozen Mammalian Tissues from Natural History Collections in TexasSkinner, Kalin Michelle; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Strenth, Ned E; Ammerman, Loren K; Hung, You-jou; Fohn, Laurel EThis study examined a proposed method of detecting the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in tissue samples of mammalian museum specimens proposed by Pinto et al. (2010). Pinto et al (2010) detected the presence of T. cruzi in 42 out of 159 Neotoma micropus from the Chaparral Wildlife Management Area. This study re-examined the 42 T. cruzi-positive tissue samples used in Pinto’s study and failed to detect a single positive for T. cruzi. In addition, 50 samples of 16 species of mammals from Concho and Val Verde counties from the Angelo State Natural History Collection were tested for the presence of T. cruzi. None of these tissue samples tested positive for presence of the parasite. The results of this current study do not support the use of frozen tissues from museum collections for the detection of the parasite T. cruzi from a known endemic geographical region. Several proposals are presented in an effort to explain the discrepancy in the results of these two studies. ItemEffects of corn or corn by-products fed as a pre-breeding supplement on body weight and pregnancy in Rambouillet ewesClay, Savannah Elizabeth; Salisbury, Micheal W; Scott, Cody B; Runyan, Chase A; Dickison, James W; Varbelow, SonjaThe objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of corn and dried distiller’s grain fed as a prebreeding flushing supplement on weight gain and body condition, breeding and subsequent lambing rate, and early postnatal growth of Rambouillet ewes. Treatment groups consisted of 1 control group (n=30) that was not fed a supplement, 1 group (n=30) that was fed a corn based ration, and 1 group (n=30) that was fed a dried distiller’s grain based ration. After the feeding period concluded, lamb data was collected to determine what, if any, change occurred. No differences (p < 0.05) were detected in body weight over time or on the number of ewes that conceived. However, significant differences (p > 0.05) were found in body condition score, number of lambs born, and 30 and 60 day weights of lambs. While flushing supplementation slowed down weight loss, there was no significant difference detected in reproductive efficiency. ItemVector-borne Diseases of San Angelo, TXPrice, Mattie Rita; Eoff, Shirley; Negovetich, Nicholas; Fohn, LaurelMosquitoes are vectors of viral and parasitic diseases. Some diseases carried by mosquitoes are encephalitis, filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, and malaria. The goal of this research is to identify mosquitoes in San Angelo, Texas, and the human and domesticated animal diseases reported to be vectored by these species. Therefore, in late Fall 2016, mosquitoes were collected from San Angelo using a commercially available CO2 trap. Identified species include Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. judithae, An. punctipennis, An. crucians, An. perplexens, An. barbei, An. atropos, Psorophora columbiae, Ochlerotatus hendersoni, Mansonia titillans, and Culex erraticus. Of these, the most common species were C. erraticus and An. pseudopunctipennis. This information may educate people to be aware of these potentially harmful organisms, realize that these common “pests” are more dangerous than they appear, and influence individuals to take safety measures to reduce the chance of acquiring vector-borne diseases. ItemFAUNAL SUCCESSION AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CARBONATE FACIES CHANGES ALONG THE LATE PERMIAN MASS EXTINCTION BOUNDARY IN THE NANPANJIANG BASIN, SOUTH CHINA: A POTENTIAL ARGUMENT FOR OCEAN ACIDIFICATION AND ITS IMPLICATIONSDunlap, Maigan Ansli; Eoff, Shirley M; Last, Fawn M; Lehto, HeatherThe late Permian mass extinction is considered the largest extinction event in Earth’s history with over 90% of marine and 70% of terrestrial species becoming extinct as a result (Lehrmann et al., 2015). The Nanpanjiang Basin in southern China contains multiple drowned carbonate platforms that are a record of the Permian-Triassic boundary. Data of two subsections from the Tianwan section of the Tian’e platform in the Nanpanjiang Basin consist of Permian carbonates, the altered truncation surface of the Permian-Triassic boundary as well as Triassic microbialites. Analysis of 1) faunal succession, 2) faunal dominance, 3) stable isotopes and 4) diagenetic structures contributes to the understanding of the environmental conditions during the late Permian to early Triassic. Data collected shows a trend from skeletal packstone to microbial boundstone from the Permian to Triassic respectively. Stable isotope analysis of δ13C and δ18O data up section both show large excursions at the extinction boundary. ItemTOWARD A CONTINGENCY THEORY OF STAKEHOLDER RELEVANCE AND THE STAKEHOLDER MAPPING PROCESSSosa, Nolan Andrew; Eoff, Shirley M; Jones, Clifton T; Pate, Sandra KStakeholder Theory has been defined as an “additive model”, in which all powerful, urgent and legitimate individuals and groups must be treated as important entities to engage with when evaluating important decisions for the organization. This thesis contends that stakeholder definition and the appropriate selection of important stakeholders depends, at least in part, on environmental influences. Thus, a “one definition for all environments” paradigm may lead to stakeholder mismanagement.This thesis illustrates this point with several typical examples, and proposes an alternative “subtractive model” in which situations – industry conditions as identified by a number of different authors – may compel an organization’s leaders to prioritize those stakeholders who are less than “definitive” by the classical additive model. Thus, this thesis contends that a gap exists between existing organizational theory and stakeholder management literature with regard to environmental influence and proposes an alternative stakeholder mapping process derived from the extant literature. ItemEVALUATION OF COLLABORATIVE RESOURCES FOR MENTAL HEALTHCARE IN TOM GREEN COUNTYWashington, Brandi N.; Eoff, Shirley M; Kreitler, Crystal M; Starkey, Thomas WSan Angelo and surrounding communities suffer from both a lack of adequate mental health services and a lack of professional staffing to serve the entire community (American Medical Association Physician Masterfile, 2017; U.S. Census Bureau, 2014). A 2011 data report collected by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) found that over 10 million adults age 18 or older felt that, although they needed mental health treatment, they received inadequate or no mental health care. Rural Texas communities, as opposed to urban communities, are more likely to face difficulties in providing adequate mental health treatment options to residents. As such, mental healthcare providers must identify relevant challenges in providing care and adapt evidence-based practice methods to meet the needs of individuals living within these rural communities. This thesis analyzes existing mental health services available to Tom Green County residents to discover issues currently limiting access to proper care and make preliminary recommendations to address those limitations. ItemSomething From AnotherBarnum, Ryan John; Dailey, Jeffrey D.; Dilts, Nicole; La Flamme, Art; Martinez, Eduardo V.What does it take to improve leadership skills of an Air Force intelligence officer, especially given manning constraints? Can it be brought about by teaching structured analysis techniques? In this study I administered a pre-survey to my subjects, intervened with three analysis techniques, each applicable to a different necessary intelligence officer leadership areas. Then I administered a post-survey. I also interviewed three of my subjects to get more detailed opinions on my study and hypothesis. I concluded that this is a possible linkage between the learning of structured analytic techniques and perceived leadership skills among Air Force intelligence officers. ItemPrevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of E. coli and Salmonella spp. in Market Show Swine and CattleWerland, Kylee Shay; Branham, Loree; Runyan, Chase; Salisbury, Micheal; Heimann, ConnieFecal samples were collected from market hogs (n=82) and steers (n=84) at a statewide livestock show in Texas. Samples were analyzed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli populations were higher in hogs with an LSMean of 6.12 log10 CFU/g of feces compared to steer samples at 5.57 log10 CFU/g (P<0.05). Salmonella was more prevalent in hog fecal samples than steer samples (P<0.05) with 19.05% of hogs and 3.61% steers testing positive. Microbroth dilution plates were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility. Market hog E. coli isolates (n=330) were resistant to Tetracycline and Sulfisoxazole with values of 96.67% and 69.70%; whereas steer isolates (n=332) were resistant to Tetracycline and Streptomycin with values of 55.12% and 32.53%, respectively. Market hog Salmonella isolates (n=18) were resistant to Tetracycline with a value of 77.78%; whereas steer isolates (n=5) were pansusceptible to all antimicrobials tested. ItemA Dietary Analysis of the Microwhip Scorpion (Arachnida: Palpigradi) from Val Verde County, TexasJones, Mary Patricia; Strenth, Ned E; Ammerman, Loren K; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Siefker, Andrew JPalpigrades comprise a poorly known group of arachnids found in caves and soil from numerous localities worldwide. Prior and preliminary studies have suggested arthropods and cyanobacteria as possible diet items of these organisms. This current study uses DNA sequencing to identify contents of the digestive tract of eleven palpigrade specimens, Eukoenenia florenciae (Rucker) from Val Verde County, Texas. Three universal primer sets were used to target the COI region of arthropods, the 16S rRNA of cyanobacteria, and the ITS region of fungi. Additionally, a blocking primer was designed to prevent amplification of the palpigrade DNA itself. DNA from these specimens was extracted, amplified by PCR, and then sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. Sequences were compared to the NCBI GenBank nucleotide database. The presence of arthropods, cyanobacteria, and fungi supports the premise of generalist feeding habits for this species.