Sam Houston State University

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    Higher Education and Emerging Technologies: Student Usage, Preferences, and Lessons for Library Services
    (Reference and User Services Association of the American Library Association (Reference & User Services Quarterly), 2011) Cassidy, Erin Dorris; Britsch, James; Griffin, Glenda; Manolovitz, Tyler; Shen, Lisa; Turney, Linda
    This study examines the utilization and preference of popular Internet and communication technologies among students at Sam Houston State University (SHSU), a Carnegie Research Doctoral university in East Texas. The researchers wished to study the local relevance of various technology trends reported in librarianship literature and then to use the survey data to inform decisions regarding library service development. A survey was conducted to investigate student ownership of electronic devices and student usage of technologies such as text messaging, Twitter, RSS, podcasts, social networks, SecondLife, and others. Survey results indicated that, while students do not wish to experience an overwhelming library presence on all social networking and Internet media, most do wish to have basic library services easily accessible through a few of the most popular social networking and Internet technologies. The investigators did identify some unique trends in usage among their local population and have adjusted certain library services and plans in accordance with their findings. Other libraries are encouraged to study their own users and develop new services based on those users' needs rather than popular trends or surveys which may be based on radically different user groups.
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    Subsequent Course Pass Rates in Modularized Developmental Mathematics Courses in Select Community Colleges in North Carolina: The Differences Between Teacher-Centered, Student-Centered, and Computer-Centered Delivery
    (2016-11-09) Bishop, Tammy Jane
    Throughout the past decade the structure of developmental education courses and teaching methods has been changing in order to try and improve success rates of students in developmental education courses and beyond. Course redesigns have taken place throughout the country. The modularized, mastery redesign for developmental mathematics of the North Carolina Community College System was examined in this study. The purpose of this study was to compare the subsequent gateway course success rates of the pre- and post-redesign courses, as well as compare rates of the post-redesign courses based on the delivery method used. Delivery methods compared were teacher-centered, student-centered, and computer-centered. Data showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the subsequent gateway course success rates based on the design of the course. However, data did show that the student-centered and computer-centered delivery methods, which both use indirect instruction, have a statistically significant difference in subsequent gateway course success rates when compared to teacher-centered instruction.
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    Reaction of dimethyl trisulfide with hemoglobin
    (2016-11-17) Dong, Xinmei
    When samples of blood were spiked with the novel cyanide antidote dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), the color of the blood was observed to darken. Additionally, recoveries of DMTS from spiked blood were low, and the loss of DMTS was more pronounced in 5-day old blood samples than in equivalently spiked 4-month old blood samples. It was hypothesized that DMTS oxidizes hemoglobin (Hb) in the red blood cells to yield methemoglobin (metHb), methanethiol (MeSH), methyl hydrogen disulfide (MeSSH), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The aim of this research was to determine the reactants, products, and chemical kinetics of the reactions of DMTS with Hb isolated from red blood cells, and with Hb in blood. The changes induced in the Hb absorption spectrum by the addition of DMTS were found to closely match those induced by the known metHb former sodium nitrite. These spectral shifts indicating the conversion of Hb to metHb were observed systematically when DMTS was added to red blood cell or Hb solutions. The formation of metHb was monitored as a function of time following the addition of a known amount of DMTS. The rate of the reaction of DMTS with Hb increased in the presence of the reducing agent dithionite (DT). H2S, MeSH, and MeSSH were expected as reaction products, but were not directly observed in headspace samples. 2,4-dithiapentane had not been predicted as a reaction product, but was observed in the headspace above reaction mixtures of DMTS and Hb. The 2,4-dithiapentane is hypothesized to be a reaction product of MeSH with formaldehyde-based polymers in the vial cap.
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    Parasitism and Fatty Liver Disease in the Invasive Red Lionfish, Pterois Volitans (Linnaeus), Along the Gulf of Mexico
    (2017-11-14) Fails, Danielle M.; Cook, Tamara; Smith-Herron, Autumn
    Invasive species are detrimental to both the economy as well as to environmental stability. One of the most successful to date is the red lionfish, Pterois volitans, which first invaded the western hemisphere around 30 years ago. Lionfish have decimated native fish populations at roughly 7,500 lbs. per acre per year, have no natural predators, and seem fairly resistant to parasitism. Few species (<50) of parasites have been found in lionfish. Not only is parasitic prevalence low in lionfish, but they also seem to exhibit resistance to the effects of fatty liver disease. This research provides an updated parasite survey and reports six species of parasites, three of which are parasite species reported for the first time in lionfish; (1) one Cymothoid isopod: Olencira praegustator, (2) one Corallanidae isopod: Excorallana truncata, and (3) an acanthocephalan: Serrasentis sagittifer. Overall parasite prevalence and intensity was low for all hosts, and were significantly higher in males. A baseline study of fatty liver analysis in lionfish revealed that >85% of examined fish displayed evidence of fatty liver disease, and most exhibited moderate degrees of disease. Sex, location, and standard length of lionfish did not play a significant role in degree of disease, though slight disease differences were observed among locations. Outward condition (i.e. skin/scale integrity, coloration, observed mass) of specimens observed in relation to fatty liver disease and parasitism seemed relatively unaffected.
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    Wintering whooping crane behavior and habitat quality at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge on the Texas Gulf Coast
    (2017-11-13) Tiegs, Lindsey A.; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.
    The Aransas-Wood Buffalo population of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) exclusively overwinters in coastal saltmarshes of Texas. This study examined how Whooping Crane behavior and habitat quality shift over the course of a winter season, and attempted to discover linkages between their behavior and habitat quality, with the ultimate goal of finding a non-invasive method to infer habitat quality through behavioral observations. Whooping Crane behavioral observations and habitat assessments were conducted at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and at adjacent urban upland sites January-March of 2016 and 2017. Cranes visiting urban upland sites with game feeders spent significantly less time foraging, and more time resting and in comfort/maintenance activities than cranes observed in their natural saltmarsh territories. On average, birds observed in their saltmarsh territories sequentially spent more time foraging each month during both winters, which correlated to a decrease in the time spent resting each month in 2017. Adult cranes spent significantly more time on alert than juveniles both years. Intra-site variability significantly exceeded inter-site variability in marsh pond salinity, but not in Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) or Carolina Wolfberry (Lycium carolinianum) fruit density. Saltmarsh salinity and Blue Crab density dramatically changed throughout the two winters, which were both negatively correlated to mean sea level. Marsh water quality was variable across sites, with some mainland regions and islands possessing similar water quality traits. Whooping Crane time activity budgets were not similar across sites comparable in resource availability, nor did their behavior reflect shifts in pond salinity or Blue Crab density. Whooping Crane behavior also did not consistently correlate to time of day, observation distance, wind speed, air temperature, or mean sea level. To investigate which structural components make one saltmarsh territory more plentiful in Whooping Crane resources than another, future geospatial modeling of the microtopographic variations along the Aransas NWR could be paired with the food density and marsh pond salinity data from this study, to ultimately be applied in future land purchase, protection of existing lands, environmental easement, and restoration decisions.
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    Of Pyrates and Picaros: The Literary Lineage of Charles Johnson’s A General History of the Pyrates
    (2017-11-13) Morris, Adam R.; Payton, Jason M.
    Charles Johnson’s A General History of the Pyrates is a text that exists at the nexus of Atlantic history, Atlantic literary studies, and oceanic studies. Though the study of Johnson’s work has most often been the province of historians, this thesis establishes the need to reconsider it as a literary artifact and explores its literary legacy and lineage through the use of material history and genre theories. The initial chapter examines the evolution of A General History in transnational and transatlantic contexts, with an emphasis on its material history. This approach affords the opportunity to examine how changes to the text serve the rhetorical purposes of girding Johnson’s credibility with his audience and of emphasizing the critical socio-political themes in the text, namely European culpability in the rise and perpetuation of piracy, and how these changes reflect a fluctuation in eighteenth-century concerns with piracy. Chapters two and three maintain a generic focus. Chapter two establishes the work as a piece of literature with divinable characteristics belonging to many genres and specifically acknowledges the picaresque novel’s influence on the text, noting that the work borrowed from the Spanish literary tradition and that some figures in the text, Bartholomew Roberts in particular, function as English picaros. Chapter three focuses on the text’s distinct political commentary and Johnson’s mobilization of the English picaro as a vessel of criticism. The socio-political criticism evident in the English picaro female pirate narratives—those of Mary Read (and Anne Bonny, to a lesser extent)—is the manifestation, illustration, and extension of criticisms introduced in the preface and introduction, both of which mark the text as a critique of English/European imperial practices and inefficiencies. A close reading of Johnson’s text reveals a nuanced view of eighteenth-century piracy. Ultimately, Johnson leverages the picaresque and other fictional elements for the sake of socio-political criticism and satire and argues that the scourge of piracy is a byproduct of the structural and administrative shortcomings of the European state at large, emphasizing the English role in the incubation of piracy.
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    Invasive Allochthonous Input: the Chinese Tallow Tree and Stream Food Webs
    (2017-11-10) Sadeghian, Cyrus; Hargrave, Chad W.
    The invasive Chinese Tallow tree (Triadica sebifera or Sapium sebiferum) was heavily introduced to the southern United States from Asia at the turn of the 20th Century. A Tallow invasion can reduce richness within the plant community by direct competition and can decrease density of consumer communities by limiting basal food resources. Additionally, tallow leaches rapidly into aquatic systems, where a sharp increase in aerobic microbial decomposition can simultaneously drop dissolved oxygen and pH levels, thus causing mortality in macroorganisms. I predicted an input of solely Tallow leaves into mesocosms (artificial streams) would temporarily increase N & P concentration, algae concentration, invertebrate density, and fishes because of increased rates of rapid decomposition, but would fail to sustain long-term and overall growth for that same reason. In contrast, sycamore leaves would provide a more sustained, long-term allochthonous subsidy to the mesocosms, thus resulting in increased growth of fishes and other response variables relative to that of tallow leaf treatments. Cellulose paper was used as a no-leaf control to account carbon input. Bullhead minnows (Pimephales vigilax) were stocked in half of our experimental stream mesocosms, where benthic algae, invertebrate density, and nutrient content were sampled for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, 50% of the original Sycamore leaves remained, whereas less than 10% of the cellulose paper (control) and Tallow remained. The concentration of benthic algae was highly dependent on time as values increased significantly after week 6, and tended to be higher in treatments with no-fish and cellulose/tallow. Invertebrate density generally iv remained higher in no-fish treatments; densities were highest in tallow treatments before the experimental halfway point, and were highest in sycamore treatments past the halfway point. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations fluctuated highly throughout the experimental runtime, and showed no significant interactions among treatment groups. Fish were largest in mesocosms with the Sycamore leaves where either the undecomposed leaves provided additional surface area for food resources, or growth was higher relative to tallow treatments because of possible physiological inhibition. Tallow treatment fish growth was significantly smaller than sycamore, and relatively equal to cellulose. Herein, we discuss the reasons for the decreased fish growth in the presence of tallow leaves such as: (1) rapid decomposition providing a short-term nutrient pulse that moved through the food web quickly, and (2) physiological inhibition from the chemical composition of tallow leaves.
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    Life unfiltered: Social control theory in the age of social media and substance abuse
    (2017-11-10) Ford, Teri L.; Gerber, Jurg
    Hirschi (1969) may have never used Social Media, received a Like or Re-Tweet or posted a heart-felt emoji, but his Social Control Theory may be affected by the actions of Social Media and its users. Hirschi’s Social Control Theory purports to explain why individuals choose to follow the rules and accept the norms of society. Hirschi postulated that there are four components in normal social systems that instill boundaries and social mores into the psyche of young adults. These four components, attachment, belief, commitment, and involvement are the four elements of social control that prevent individuals from committing crimes. If these components are diminished or eroded, it is possible that young adults may develop a system of beliefs that run contrary to the values of the society they were brought up in. Could Social Media as a dynamic environment somehow contribute to the unfiltered behavior of many members of society who are habitual or excessive users of sites like Facebook and Twitter? The question asked is whether social media promote deviance in young adults, particularly substance issues such as cigarette smoking, underage drinking, and marijuana use. The researcher hypothesizes that excessive Social Media use is eroding the components of Hirschi’s theory, particularly attachment, belief, and commitment, and that this erosion is increasing deviant habits and attitudes among excessive Social Media users.
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    Determining the interactions between serum proteins of the complement system and outer membrane proteins in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli
    (2017-11-08) Botero, Cindy; Lynne, Aaron M.
    Eschericia coli is a well-known member of the intestinal flora of mammals and birds. However, there exist pathogenic strains capable of causing disease. One strain comes from the O-serogroup of E. coli, APEC O2 (+/+), and causes millions of dollars of global losses annually. The elucidation of the mechanisms of complement avoidance in pathogenic strains could potentially provide vital information to understanding bacterial pathogenicity and assist in the future development of a vaccine. The bacterial strains used were APEC O2, an iss+/bor+ strain, and DH5α, a iss-/bor+ strain. Mutant strains were created from a knockout of iss in APEC O2 (+/+) to create APEC O2∆iss (-/+), and a knockout of the gene bor to create DH5α∆bor (-/-). In order to determine how Iss and Bor assist each other in surface exclusion tactics and in serum resistance, each strain was subjected to a complement consumption assay, which measured the amount of complement consumed by each strain, the bactericidal assay, which determined the amount of cell death in response to complement, ELISA, which measured the amount of terminal complement complex remaining after exposure of bacteria to serum, and immunofluorescent microscope visualization, which visually showed the bound C5b-9 terminal complement complex to the outer membrane of the bacterial strains. The results of this study determined that the role the protein Bor has on assisting Iss with serum resistance may not be as significant as previously thought. There may also be something other than the gene bor assisting iss in the prevention of cell death due to the attachment of membrane attack complex (MAC) on the cell wall. This study expands on our previous understanding of how proteins of the outer bacterial cell membrane cooperate in order to provide resistance to complement proteins in the immune system.
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    Increased temperature effects on fish-mediated nutrient cycling in an East Texas stream
    (2017-11-07) McWilliams, Jessica Lynn; Hargrave, Chad W.
    The unprecedented rate of global warming is an inevitable outcome of anthropogenic CO2 release into the atmosphere and complex climatic feedbacks. In ectotherms, increasing temperature may increase metabolic rates, which could enhance the energy demands of individuals and should accelerate resource acquisition. Population size and fish biomass were measured seasonally in a small second order stream over a 10-year period to examine seasonal variation in these parameters. I examined effects of increased temperature on nitrogen and phosphorus excretion in the four most abundant fish in this stream system. These fishes represent three functional feeding guilds common to many temperate stream ecosystems and comprise approximately 80-90% of the fish community. I developed temperature dependent nitrogen and phosphorus excretion models for fishes and applied these models to daily average temperatures in the stream. I then simulated climate warming (+2, +4, & +6°C) to examine the potential effects of increased temperature on fish-mediated nutrient dynamics in a southern temperate stream ecosystem. I found that increased temperature does increase nutrient cycling and nutrient flux within aquatic ecosystems; however, these effects appear to be tied to population size, biomass in addition to seasonal temperature. With increased temperature effects in spring and autumn having the greatest effect, when temperatures are cool and fish abundance and biomass is also greatest.
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    Developmental Education Faculty Perspective of the Texas Success Initiative Assessment as a Placement Exam
    (2017-11-07) McAdams, Felicia Chunta; Moore, George W.
    Purpose The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the essence of developmental education faculty experiences with the placement of students in their classrooms as a result of the Texas Success Initiative Assessment (TSIA). The interviews from this study were used to give developmental education faculty a voice and insight into implementing or redesigning practices for students in developmental education. The final purpose was to obtain perceptions regarding patterns associated with placement of developmental education students. Methods Using Moustakas’ phenomenological design, developmental education faculty were asked to participant in one-on-one interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to qualitative coding conventions. Categories were constructed and then synthesized to identify the emerging themes. Findings Seven developmental education faculty were interviewed to understand the essence of their experience with the TSIA as a placement exam for their courses. Overall, developmental education faculty do not believe the TSIA is an effective instrument for placement due to the assessment’s inability to assess or take into consideration the non-cognitive factors that interfere with student success. Participants also suggested the level of the cutoff scores also interfere with the TSIA ability to place students in the correct developmental education course. Four themes emerged from this study; arbitrary cutoff scores, college expectations and non-cognitive factors, content alignment, and an imperfect system. Future studies should focus on cutoff scores and factors suggested by Saxon & Morante (2015) and Conley (2007, 2010) for a systematic onboarding process to increase student success.
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    “Book Club Rules and Tutoring Drools”: An Intervention Mixed Methods Study of the Effects of an After-school Book Club on Third-Grade Boys’ Reading Achievement, Attitudes, Preferences
    (2017-11-03) Smith, Lauren; Miller, Melinda
    This intervention mixed methods study used a quasi-experimental design to investigate the effects of an after-school book club on third-grade boys’ reading achievement, attitudes, and preferences. During the 2015-2016 school year, seven third-grade boys from a South Texas elementary school attended an after-school book club in their school library as an alternative to traditional after-school tutoring. The nine-week book club was designed to motivate reading by incorporating the five components of internal reading motivation: perceived control, interest, self-efficacy, involvement, and social collaboration. In addition to reading and discussion, the book club also included adult male guest readers and a service project where participants self-selected books to purchase and add to the school library collection. Quantitative data were collected before and after the intervention in the form of reading assessments and motivation-to-read surveys. These data suggested that the book club intervention had a statistically significant positive impact on the participants’ overall reading achievement. Qualitative findings gathered through voice-recorded interviews and video-recorded book-club meetings revealed positive changes in the participants’ attitudes toward reading and reading preferences. Additional qualitative findings support prior research studies that suggest a social environment and collaboration can contribute positively to reading motivation.
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    Know where you are to guide where you're going: A survey of Risk-Need-Responsivity treatment practices in juvenile correctional programs
    (2017-11-02) Formon, Dana L.; Henderson, Craig
    Despite the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model being a preferred method of offender treatment in adults and juveniles, research on this model for juveniles specifically is still in its infancy. This is problematic as the RNR model may not directly apply to juveniles as it stands and may be ineffective, as it was originally created for an adult offender population. Before suggesting change to RNR-based practice already existing in juvenile treatment programs, a survey of preexisting treatment representing RNR principles must first be conducted. Not only does this current study report on the degree to which juvenile justice treatment programs reflect RNR-based practice, but it also takes into consideration a variety of organizational variables found to be meaningful in evidence-based adherence. Findings indicated that the responsivity and need principles were most commonly seen represented in treatment programs. This may be because these principles ask that practitioners engage in practices that have long been considered essential to competent treatment (such as providing many effective therapeutic approaches, revising treatment plans, and providing individualized services). The risk principle was represented the least among treatment sites. With regard to organizational variables, privatization of a treatment facility was observed to most impact the responsivity principle, and sites’ involvement with non-justice organizations was found to most impact total RNR adherence overall.
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    Fallen Tiger: The Fate of America's Missing Airmen in China
    (2017-10-27) Jackson, Daniel; Dancy, Jeremiah
    During World War II, America’s air forces in China reported 605 aircraft and 1,722 airmen as missing on combat missions. Fighting a savage guerrilla air war against the Japanese, the prospect of crash-landing or bailing out in a remote and dangerous land loomed ominously in the consciousness of every individual. Of the airmen reported missing, the Japanese captured less than five percent, while thirty-one percent died and twenty-two percent are still listed as missing in action. More than forty percent returned safely to American airbases. The number of dead and missing (presumed dead) corresponds closely to the statistics of Allied aircraft operating over Europe during the war. Remarkably, however, while less than twenty-five percent of those who survived the crash or bailout in occupied Europe made it back to friendly territory with the help of underground organizations, ninety percent of those who survived in China returned to friendly territory. The rescuers included Nationalists, Communists, warlords, and even alleged collaborators. Despite deep divisions throughout wartime China, helping downed American aircrews transcended politics. The purpose of this study is to go beyond the largely partisan and anecdotal histories of World War II in China to determine its actual military and social dimensions by analyzing and aggregating every available Missing Aircrew Report (MACR) and Evasion Report filed by China-based combat air forces. These contemporary reports provide a ground truth view unfiltered by Cold War-politics or self-glorification. The result is a revealing picture of the unexpected nature of the war in China, as well as a touching story of Chinese-American cooperation that transcended political and social boundaries.
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    The expanding roles of school counselors: A phenomenological study on the noncounseling responsibilities of school counselors within Title 1 elementary schools
    (2017-10-24) Nyan, Kaythi; Sullivan, Jeffrey; Serres, Sheryl
    Due to increased accountability and budget shortages, school districts and administrators are utilizing school counselors to perform noncounseling duties at their Title 1 elementary schools. School counselors juggle multiple roles, heavy caseloads, and a myriad of duties while addressing students’ academic, social, emotional, and career development needs. The counselors at Title 1 elementary schools are expected to meet the extensive behavioral, academic, and emotional needs of their students, which would cause these counselors to experience their roles very differently than counselors at non-Title 1 elementary schools. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to explore the experiences and perceptions of professional school counselors regarding their noncounseling responsibilities in Title 1 elementary schools. The ten-question interview protocol was developed based on review of the literature pertaining to the school counselor’s roles and responsibilities. The qualitative phenomenological analysis yielded six themes, four of which included subthemes. The themes included: (a) too much to handle: resent meaningless noncounseling duties, (b) enjoy working with kids and making a difference, (c) utilize me effectively: just let me counsel – no extras, (d) STAAR testing prevents me from seeing students, (e) dealing with duties: stress out, set boundaries, and take it in stride, and (f) juggling time and triaging: hard to carve out time to see students. Implications of this study include increased collaboration between policymakers, stakeholders, administrators, and counselors with a knowledge base for reevaluating the duties assigned to counselors at Title 1 schools.
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    Differences in the Reading Achievement of Texas Grade 3 English Language Learners as a Function of their Economic Status, Ethnicity/Race, and Gender: A Multiyear Statewide Study
    (2017-10-19) Schleeter, Gideon; Slate, John R.
    Purpose The purpose of this journal-ready dissertation was to examine the degree to which differences were present in the reading achievement of Grade 3 English Language Learners by their economic status, ethnicity/race, and gender. Specifically analyzed in the first investigation were the current Texas state-mandated assessments in reading and the extent to which test scores differed among English Language Learners who were Not Poor (i.e., did not qualify for the reduced or free lunch program), for English Language Learners who were Moderately Poor (i.e., qualified for the reduced lunch program), and for English Language Learners who were Extremely Poor (i.e., qualified for the free lunch program). In the second investigation, the current Texas state-mandated assessment in reading was examined to determine the extent to which test scores differed by the ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White) of English Language Learners. The purpose of the third investigation was to ascertain the degree to which reading scores were different between English Language Learner boys and girls. By examining three years of Texas statewide data in each article, the degree to which trends were present in the reading performance by the economic status, ethnicity/race, and gender of Grade 3 English Language Learners was determined. Method A casual comparative research design was used herein. Texas archival data on English Language Learners were analyzed for the 2012-2013 through the 2014-2015 school years. Inferential statistical procedures were calculated to determine whether differences in reading were present by economic disadvantage, ethnicity/race, and gender. Findings For each statistical analysis, as the poverty level of English Language Learners decreased, their reading performance was statistically significantly lower. Regarding ethnicity/race, Asian English Language Learners had statistically significantly higher reading performance than Hispanic, Black, and White English Language Learners in every analysis. Hispanic English Language Learners had the statistically poorest reading performance in most comparisons. White, Hispanic, and Black English Language Learners, had similar results throughout the comparisons. Concerning gender, English Language Learner girls outperformed English Language Learner boys in all statistical analyses. Results were congruent with existing literature regarding the relationship of economic status, ethnicity/race, and gender with reading performance.
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    How Women Community College Presidents Describe Their Career Pathways
    (2017-10-19) Venzant Sampson, Markisha D.; Polnick, Barbara
    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was two-fold: (a) to determine the barriers women encounter as they pursue becoming a community college president; and (b) to identify the supports and career paths that are described as assisting women in obtaining the position of community college president. More specifically, emergent themes regarding the career paths, barriers and obstacles related to female presidents’ professional roles and responsibilities, and their strategies for success were sought in this study. This study is informative and inspirational to other women within the community college system who aspire to presidency positions as well as those who serve in leadership roles in all types of institutions. It is believed that the information that is gathered and shared will be used to inspire and assist women to continue along the path to become community college presidents. Method A phenomenological research design was used to explore participants’ experiences in Texas. The process was meant to explore the phenomenon related to the experiences of female presidents. Data were collected through individual face-to face and phone interviews. A qualitative method of analysis was used to analyze the data collected around the experiences of the presidents as described to the researcher by the participants. Findings Findings from this study were explanations of experiences of community college presidents as they related to their own unique career pathways. Results included barriers and supports that the women encountered along the way, as well as the career paths they followed. Although every woman who participated in this study had a unique journey to and experience in the presidency, several similarities or themes were identified that bind these women together. Aspiring women presidents need to be more open minded about relocating, sometimes out of state, to move into a college presidency. Although not always easy for some women, particularly those women who are part of dual career marriages, or who have children who have not yet graduated from high school, more women need to become open minded about the possibility of relocating if they are to attain the office of presidency.
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    Differences in Discipline Consequence Assignments by Ethnicity/Race and Economic Status for Texas Grade 6, 7, and 8 Girls: A Statewide Analysis
    (2017-10-17) Coleman, Crystal L.; Slate, John R.
    Purpose The purpose of this journal-ready dissertation was to examine the extent to which differences were present in discipline consequence assignments by the ethnicity/race and economic status for Grade 6, 7, and 8 girls in Texas. In the first investigation, the degree to which discipline consequence assignments differed by the ethnicity/race of Grades 6, 7, and 8 girls was addressed. In the second study, the extent to which discipline consequence assignments differed for Black girls by their economic status was investigated. Finally, in the third investigation, the degree to which discipline consequence assignments were different for Hispanic girls by their economic status was determined. The two discipline consequences of in-school suspension and out-of-school suspension were analyzed for four school years and separately for each grade level in each of the three investigations. As such, this multiyear analysis permitted a determination of trends, if present, in the differential assignment of discipline consequences. Method In this multiyear investigation, a non-experimental, causal comparative research design was used. Archival data analyzed in this investigation were previously obtained from the Texas Education Agency Public Education Information Management System for the 2012-2013, 2013-2014, 2014-2015, and 2015-2016 school years. The degree to which differences were present in discipline consequence assignments by student demographic characteristics (i.e., ethnicity/race and economic status) of girls in Texas middle schools was determined. Findings For all four school years, statistically significant differences were present in the assignment of both in-school suspension and out-of-school suspension by the ethnicity/race and economic status of Grade 6, 7, and 8 girls in Texas. Black girls received the highest rates of these two discipline consequences, followed by Hispanic girls. With respect to economic status, Black and Hispanic girls who were Extremely Poor had the highest rates of these two discipline consequences, followed by Black and Hispanic girls who were Moderately Poor. In this multiyear investigation, a stair-step effect (Carpenter et al., 2006) was clearly present in the assignment of discipline consequences by the ethnicity/race and the economic status of Grade 6, 7, and 8 girls in Texas. Results were congruent with the extant literature.
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    Inequities in Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program assignments by the economic status and ethnicity/race of Texas middle school boys and their effects on academic achievement: A multiyear, statewide investigation
    (2017-10-17) Eckford, Christopher Ardel; Slate, John R.
    The purpose of this proposed journal-ready dissertation was to determine the extent to which differences were present in Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program placements by student demographic characteristics for Grade 6, 7, and 8 boys in Texas middle schools. In the first investigation, the degree to which Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program placements differed by the economic status (i.e., Poor, Not Poor) of Grade 6, 7, and 8 boys was examined. In the second investigation, the degree to which Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program placements differed by the ethnicity/race (i.e., White, Hispanic, and Black) of Grade 6, 7, and 8 boys was determined. Finally, in the third study, the extent to which Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program placements were related to the reading and mathematics achievement of Grade 6, 7, and 8 boys was addressed. In the first two articles, four years of Texas statewide data was analyzed, whereas in the last article, only one school year of data were present. In this investigation, a causal-comparative research design was used. Through a Public Information Request, archival data were obtained from the Texas Education Agency for the 2012-2013, 2013-2014, 2014-2015, and 2015-2016 school years. Specific data requested from the Texas Education Agency were student demographic characteristics and Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program placement. In all four school years, statistically significant differences were present for the majority of the analyses by student demographic characteristics. In the first two studies, statistically significant differences were present in the assignment to a Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program placement by student economic status (i.e., Poor, Not Poor) and ethnicity/race (i.e., White, Black, and Hispanic). Boys who were poor and Black boys were assigned to a Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program placement statistically significantly more often than their counterparts. In the third study, statistically significant differences were present in reading and mathematics performance as a function of Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program receipt. Boys who received this consequence had statistically significantly lower test scores than their peers who did not receive this consequence. Results from these three studies were congruent with existing literature.
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    Through their lenses: Exploring underrepresentation of women high school principals
    (2017-10-09) Malveaux, Shaleh Rene; Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Gray, Pamela L.; Polnick, Barbara E.
    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of women high school principals to uncover challenges contributing to the underrepresentation of women in secondary school leadership. Moreover, this work is situated within the larger movement of educational leadership for social justice, with a focused application of a feminist theory lens and Social Role Theory. The two research questions that guided this study were: (1) How do select high school principals who are women describe their lived experiences in the principalship? and (2) What do these select high school principals who are women believe contributes to the underrepresentation of women in high school principal positions? Methodology A phenomenological approach was chosen to explore the lived experiences of seven current high school women principals in Texas. The transcendental phenomenological research approach proposed by Moustakas (1994) was employed. Transcendental phenomenology has been summarized by Moustakas as “a scientific study of the appearance of things, of phenomena just as we see them and as they appear to us in consciousness” (1994, p. 49). Women principals who have led at their current school for at least three years were the focus of the study because they have demonstrated an ability to navigate the leadership role. Data in the form of background questionnaires and individual interviews from seven women high school principals were collected and reviewed. Findings Each participant described specific experiences, as a woman, serving in the role of high school principal. In this study, four common themes emerged: (a) Servant Leadership, (b) Facing Barriers, (c) Support Systems, and (d) Advice. Moreover, participants described the challenges they faced during their tenure as high school principals, and strategies they used to overcome the challenges. Additionally, participants expressed gender bias, a glass ceiling, and family responsibilities as most damaging to women for career progression, and thus underrepresentation in the high school principalship.