Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures for selected countries 1978-2010



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Stated simply, this thesis focuses on the relationship between energy and the economy. Using the foundation of King 2010, this analysis expands the scholarship from a U.S. focus to perform Energy Intensity Ratio analysis on forty-four countries for the time period 1978-2010. There are four fuels examined: coal, natural gas, crude oil and electricity. Using both the price and expenditures based Energy Intensity Ratio methods, outputs for each fuel in any applicable sector was determined. In addition, this work compiles an estimate of the total energy expenditures for the majority of the world. By examining the overall expenditures of gross domestic product spent on energy, the data showed two points in time where energy appears to become a constraint on growth. Though this thesis does not answer the question directly as to whether an increase in energy expenditures “causes” an increase in economic growth, or whether an increase in economic growth “causes” an increase in energy expenditures, the research shows that vi there may be a “threshold” effect whereby as energy expenditures become a greater share of output, the ability of economic growth to take place is affected.