Characterization of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase substrate specificity by conformationally sensitive fluorescence
We have engineered a mutant of HIV Reverse Transcriptase that can be fluorescently labeled by covalent attachment of the environmentally sensitive fluorophore 7-diethylamino-3-((((2-maleimidyl)ethyl)amino)carbonyl)coumarin (MDCC). The result is a polymerase that is kinetically indistinguishable from the wild-type enzyme, but provides a signal to monitor changes in enzyme structure that result from conformational changes induced by substrate binding. Using this system, we have expanded the kinetic model governing nucleotide binding to include an enzymatic isomerization following initial nucleotide binding. In doing so, we define the role of induced-fit in nucleotide specificity and mismatch discrimination. Additionally, we have characterized the kinetics governing the specificity and discrimination of several widely administered Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI’s) used to combat HIV infection including 3TC (Lamivudine), FTC (Emtricitabine), and AZT (Zidovudine) for the wild-type polymerase and mutants with clinical resistance to these compounds. Our findings resolve the apparent tighter binding of these inhibitor compounds compared to the correct nucleotide by showing that the affinity for the correct nucleotide is stronger than the inhibitors. The apparent weaker binding of the correct nucleotide is a result of a incomplete interpretation of binding data that fails to account for the importance of the reverse rate of the conformational change. The apparent Kd (Kd,app) measurements for correct nucleotide estimates Km rather than Kd because nucleotide binding does not reach equilibrium. The conformationally sensitive enzyme has also been used to characterize the kinetics governing DNA association. We show that DNA binding is governed by a two-step process where a fast initial association is followed by a second, slow isomerization that is off the pathway for nucleotide binding and incorporation. Finally, we have implemented single molecule techniques using fluorophore labeled nucleotides to study the effects of AZT incorporation on the DNA translocation dynamics of the polymerase. We find that primer termination with AZT results in DNA that fails to translocate, therefore occluding the next nucleotide from binding. This shift in translocation equilibrium exposes the newly formed phosphodiester bond to ATP- or pyrophosphate-mediated AZT excision; thereby rescuing productive polymerization. This finding represents the first kinetic measurement of DNA translocation by a polymerase.