Determining Multilayer Formation Properties from Transient Temperature and Pressure Measurements
The Multilayer Transient Test is a well-testing technique designed to determine formation properties in multiple layers, and it has been proved effective during the past two decades. To apply the Multilayer Transient Test, a combination of rate profiles from production logs and transient rate and pressure measurements are required at multiple surface rates. Therefore, this method can be time consuming and may involve significant errors due to inaccurate transient flow rate measurements. A new testing approach is proposed after realizing the limitations of the Multilayer Transient Test. The new testing approach replaces the transient flow rate measurement with transient temperature measurement by using multiple temperature sensors. This research shows that formation properties can be quantified in multiple layers by analyzing measured transient temperature and pressure data. A single-phase wellbore/reservoir coupled thermal model is developed as the forward model. The forward model is used to simulate the temperature and pressure response along the wellbore during the transient test. With the forward model, this work proves that the transient temperature and pressure are sufficiently sensitive to formation properties and can be used for multilayer reservoir characterization. The inverse model is formulated by incorporating the forward model to solve formation properties using nonlinear least-square regression. For the hypothetical cases, the proposed new multilayer testing method has successfully been applied for investigating formation properties in commingled multilayer reservoirs. Layer permeability, damaged permeability, and damaged radius can be uniquely determined using single-point transient pressure data and multipoint transient temperature data at appropriate locations. Due to the proposed data acquisition scheme, only one surface flow rate change is needed to implement this testing approach, which significantly reduces the test duration compared to the standard multilayer transient testing approach using a series of flow rate changes. Of special interest, this is the first test design that shows promise for determination of the damaged radius, which can be useful for well stimulation design. In addition, temperature resolution, data noise, and data rate impacts have been studied along with a data filtering approach that enable selection of suitable pressure and temperature sensor technologies for applying the new testing method.