The effects of sex role and fear of success on competitive behavior
In spite of the fact that we live in a culture which overtly promotes equality and in spite of the fact that we encourage our children to attend educational systems which purportedly prepare men and women for identical careers, there exist vast differences between men and women when examining ultimate achievement levels. This is especially true if standards of achievement are those such as income, power, or status. Anastasi (1953), in a survey of women throughout history, reported that less than 10% of the people who have achieved eminence have been women and that more than half of these achieved such eminence by being sovereigns by birthright. Although these statistics have undoubtedly changed, recent reports continue to emphasize differences. As late as 1970, only 5% of all lawyers and judges and 9% of all physicians in the United States were wom.en (Council of Economic Advisors, 1973).