Investigation of the photocatalytic lithographic deposition of metals in sealed microfluidic devices on TiO2 surfaces



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The research presented within this dissertation explores the photocatalytic deposition of metal carried out within sealed microfluidic channels. Micro scale patterning of metals inside sealed microchannels is investigated as well as nanoscale control over the surface morphology of the nanoparticles making up the patterns. This is achieved by controlling solution conditions during deposition. Finally, the nanoparticle patterns are used in fabricating a sensor device, which demonstrates the ability to address multiple patches within a sealed channel with different surface chemistries. Also presented here is the construction of the first epifluorescence/total internal reflection macroscope. Its ability to carry out high numerical aperture imaging of large arrays of solid supported phospholipid bilayers is explored. For this, three experiments are carried out. First, imaging of a 63 element array where every other box contains a different bilayer is preformed, demonstrating the ability to address large scale arrays by hand. Next, a protein binding experiment is preformed using two different arrays of increasing ligand density on the same chip. Finally, a two-dimensional array of mixed fluorescent dyes contained within solid supported lipid bilayers is imaged illustrating the ability of the instrument to acquire fluorescent resonance energy transfer data. Additionally, the design and fabrication of an improved array chip and addressing method is presented. Using this new array chip and addressing method in conjunction with the epifluorescence/total internal reflection macroscope should provide an efficient platform for high throughput screening of important biological processes which occur at the surfaces of cell membranes.