The impacts of processing instruction and meaning-based output Instruction on the acquisition of the English present subjective by Turkish EFL learners



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



The present study investigated the impacts of an input-based instruction (processing instruction, PI) and an output-based instruction (meaning-based output instruction, MOI) on the acquisition of the English present subjunctive form by Turkish EFL learners. The research focused on examining the effects of both types of instruction on learner performance with regard to their sentence-level interpretation and production skills. There were three groups of participants involved in the study: (N=61), Processing Instruction (n=19), Meaning-based Output Instruction (n=23), and Control (n=22). The improved performance of both instructional groups was equal at the interpretation level; however, at the production level, meaning-based output group performed significantly better than the processing instruction group. The Control group also made some gains on the interpretation task but they showed no improvement at all on the production tasks.