LISST Instruments as a Tool in Phytoplankton Ecology
Laser in situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST) instruments are used to measure the particle size distributions (PSDs) and volume concentration of individual and groups of phytoplankton in water. The objective of this research was to test the LISST?s ability in detecting monospecific blooms in-situ and the ability to detect aggregation after diatoms were subjected to different temperatures and bacteria concentrations. The PSDs of ten harmful algal bloom (HAB) species were measured with the LISST characterizing the peak location, peak height, peak width, and peak range resulting in a scattering signature for each species. Each species had specific characteristics that would allow for their detection with the LISST, though microscope observations would be needed for complete accuracy. The LISST was able to detect HABs placed in natural seawater collected off the Texas coast. Blooms of four HAB species before they reached full? bloom concentrations were detected making the LISST a possible low cost, effective tool in the early detection and monitoring of HABs. The diatom, Odontella aurita, was used to test how well the LISST could monitor aggregation, an important process in the termination of many phytoplankton blooms. Increasing temperature causes an increase in transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) production in diatoms, which is a critical sticky particle that increases the probability of aggregation. An increase in temperature can also cause an increase in bacteria concentration that can positively effect TEP production and thus aggregation. O. aurita was grown at 20 ?C and 28 ?C and showed a significant increase in TEP abundance with temperature (p = 0.002), though no relationship between TEP production and bacteria concentration existed. Coomassie stained particles (CSP) are proteinaceous gel-like particles, which are currently understudied. CSP was consistently produced though it did not appear to be dependent upon any single factor. The increase in ocean temperatures has implications for an increase in phytoplankton blooms making the monitoring and understanding of these blooms even more important as they can affect the carbon cycle and potentially the microbial loop.