Large scale total synthesis of apoptolidinone and progress towards the total synthesis of ammocidin



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Apoptolidin 1.1 was isolated in 1997 by Hayakawa and co-workers from a soil bacterium Nocardiopsis sp. during screening for specific apoptosis inducers. The primary biological test revealed that this polyketide macrolide induced apoptosis in cells transformed with the adenovirus type E1A oncognene, but not normal cells. This dissertation describes the latest studies in understanding of apoptolidin?s biological activity mechanism and previous contributions towards its total synthesis. Synthesizing apoptolidinone 1.26 by an intra-molecular Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons approach featuring a Suzuki coupling, cross metathesis and two diastereoselective aldol reactions is discussed. 15 mg apoptolidinone is prepared via our previously developed intramolecular Suzuking coupling approach. Ammocidin 3.1, which was found to induce apoptosis in Ba/F3-v12 cells in an IL- 3 free medium, is a specific apoptosis inducer discovered by Hayakawa and co-workers in 2001 from Saccharothrix sp. AJ9571. A strategy featuring Suzuki coupling, cross metathesis, Yamaguchi macrolactonization and three asymmetric aldol reactions was applied to the total synthesis of ammocidinone 3.6, the aglycone of ammocidin. The preparation of the key building blocks was discussed in the following chapter: aldehyde 3.8 (C14-C19) was synthesized via Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation; ethyl ketone 3.9? (C20-C28) was prepared via Kobayashi and Crimmins?s asymmetric aldol methodologies; aldehyde 3.14 (C7-C13) was generated by Brown crotylation and cross metathesis.