Trafficking of integral membrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane can be mediated by the ''sorting motif'' of autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus odv-e66



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Texas A&M University


The amino-terminal 33 amino acids of the baculovirus integral membrane protein, ODV-E66, are sufficient for localization of fusion proteins to viralinduced intranuclear microvesicles (MV) and occlusion derived virus envelopes during infection, and has been termed the sorting motif (SM). When abundantly expressed, SM-fusions are also detected in the inner nuclear membrane (INM), outer nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells, suggesting proteins with the SM use the same trafficking pathway as cellular INM proteins to traffic to nuclear membranes. This study identifies the essential characteristics required for sorting of the SM to the INM of uninfected cells, and the MV and ODV envelopes of infected cells. These features are an 18 amino acid transmembrane sequence that lacks polar and charged amino acids (a.a.) with a cluster of charged a.a. spaced 5-11 residues from the end of the transmembrane sequence. A comparison of the a.a. sequence of these SM features with cellular INM proteins shows the features are conserved. The model of INM protein sorting and localization predicts the only known sorting event during INM protein trafficking is immobilization/retention in the INM. This study uses confocal microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to compare the localization and mobility of lamin B receptor (LBR) fusions (which contain SM-like sequences) to a viral SM fusion when expressed in either mammalian or insect cells. The results show that immobilization is not necessarily required for accumulation of proteins in the INM. Furthermore, the results from infected cells show that an active sorting event, likely independent of immobilization, can distinguish the viral SM from cellular sequences similar to the SM. The results of this study show that sorting of proteins to the INM can be mediated by the viral SM or INM protein SM-like sequences that can function either independent of, or in addition to, immobilization. These data combined with recent reports suggest that in addition to diffusion:retention a signal mediated mechanism for sorting and localization to the INM can occur.