Theoretical Studies of Structures and Mechanisms in Organometallic and Bioinorganic Chemistry: Heck Reaction with Palladium Phosphines, Active Sites of Superoxide Reductase and Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase, and Tetrairon Hexathiolate Hydrogenase Model




Surawatanawong, Panida

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The electronic structures and reaction mechanisms of transition-metal complexes can be calculated accurately by density functional theory (DFT) in cooperation with the continuum solvation model. The palladium catalyzed Heck reaction, iron-model complexes for cytochrome P450 and superoxide reductase (SOR), and tetrairon hexathiolate hydrogenase model were investigated. The DFT calculations on the catalytic Heck reaction (between phenyl-bromide and ethylene to form the styrene product), catalyzed by palladium diphosphine indicate a four-step mechanism: oxidative addition of C6H5Br, migratory insertion of C6H5 to C2H4, b-hydride transfer/olefin elimination of styrene product, and catalyst regeneration by removal of HBr. For the oxidative addition, the rate-determining step, the reaction through monophosphinopalladium complex is more favorable than that through either the diphosphinopalladium or ethylene-bound monophosphinopalladium. In further study, for a steric phosphine, PtBu3, the oxidative-addition barrier is lower on monopalladium monophosphine than dipalladium diphosphine whereas for a small phosphine, PMe3, the oxidative addition proceeds more easily via dipalladium diphosphine. Of the phosphine-free palladium complexes examined: free-Pd, PdBr-, and Pd(h2-C2H4), the olefin-coordinated intermediate has the lowest barrier for the oxidativeaddition. P450 and SOR have the same first-coordination-sphere, Fe[N4S], at their active sites but proceed through different reaction paths. The different ground spin states of the intermediate FeIII(OOH)(SCH3)(L) model {L = porphyrin for P450 and four imidazoles for SOR} produce geometric and electronic structures that assist i) the protonation on distal oxygen for P450, which leads to O-O bond cleavage and formation of (FeIV=O)(SCH3)(L) H2O, and ii) the protonation on proximal oxygen for SOR, which leads to (FeIII-HOOH)(SCH3)(L) formation before the Fe-O bond cleavage and H2O2 production. The hydrogen bonding from explicit waters also stabilizes FeIII-HOOH over FeIV=O H2O products in SOR. The electrochemical hydrogen production by Fe4[MeC(CH2S)3]2(CO)8 (1) with 2,6-dimethylpyridinium (LutH ) were studied by the DFT calculations of proton-transfer free energies relative to LutH and reduction potentials (vs. Fc/Fc ) of possible intermediates. In hydrogen production by 1, the second, more highly reductive, applied potential (-1.58 V) has the advantage over the first applied potential (-1.22 V) in that the more highly reduced intermediates can more easily add protons to produce H2.



Palladium, Heck reaction, Superoxide Reductase, Cytochrome P450, Hydrogenase, Density Functional Theory