Voice and reflexives in Balinese
Udayana, I Nyoman
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This dissertation describes the voice system of Balinese, covering the two passives (the ka- and -a passives) and middle voice constructions, as well as reflexives, covering clause-bounded reflexives and long-distance reflexives which also serve as logophoric pronouns. Passives in Balinese have the following properties. The -a and ka- passives are subject to volitionality conditions: -a passives are volitional passives while ka- passives are typically non-volitional passives. Ka- passives are also sensitive to social variables, being preferred over -a passives in high register discourse. Finally, only the -a passive can be used in imperatives. As for Balinese middles, previous studies only give a descriptive account of their intransitive properties. This study presents a unified account of Balinese middles. They are classified according to the adicity of the base predicate to which the middle affix attaches. Specifically, they are divided into monadic and dyadic middles. Middles with dyadic base predicates exhibit a syntax-semantics mismatch, wherein they are syntactically monadic (i.e. having one argument) but semantically dyadic (i.e. having two arguments). Clause-bounded reflexives consist of simple and complex reflexives. This study offers a comprehensive account of simple reflexives, wherein they must be right-adjacent objects of high transitive verbs, while complex reflexives have no such constraints. The present study also offers binding rules regulating the two kinds of reflexives. Simple reflexives must be locally a-bound (bound by a co-argument within the same nucleus), while complex reflexives must be locally a-bound or else long-distance l-bound (logophorically bound). Logophoric binding is local with respect to the logophoric structure: in an embedded report of a report, a logophoric pronoun must be bound by the most immediate source.