The role of neutrophil recruitment in the pathogenesis of salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium-induced enteritis in calves
Nunes, Jairo Santos
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The role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of Salmonella typhimurium-induced ruminant and human enteritis and diarrhea remains incompletely understood. To address this question, the in vivo bovine ligated ileal loop model of non-typhoidal salmonellosis was used in calves with the naturallyoccurring Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) mutation whose neutrophils are unable to extravasate and infiltrate the extravascular matrix. Data obtained from BLAD calves were compared to those from genetically normal calves negative for the BLAD mutation. Morphologic studies showed that the absence of significant tissue influx of neutrophils in intestine infected by S. typhimurium resulted in less tissue damage, reduced luminal fluid accumulation, and increased bacterial invasion compared to regular calves. Study of gene expression profile of cytokines by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRTPCR) revealed that the massive tissue influx of neutrophils during acute infection is mainly driven by the CXC chemokine GRO- ? especially in the last stages of acute infection and to a lesser extent, IL-8. In contrast, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 ? and TNF- ? were not significantly correlated with the presence or absence of tissue neutrophils. The precise in situ localization of gene expression of these major cytokines and chemokines was investigated by qRTCPR from specific groups of intestinal cells captured by Laser Capture Microdissection in S. typhimuriuminfected ileal loops from BLAD animals. Our data confirmed that gene expression of IL-8, GRO- ?, and IL-1 ? was predominantly localized to enterocytes of crypts with less expression in enterocytes of villi tips and cells that form the domed villi were not an important source of TNF- ? gene expression. Microarray technology was used to determine the global transcriptional profile of bovine intestinal loops inoculated with S. typhimurium. The host samples were hybridized on a 13K bovine-specific oligoarray and microarray data was analyzed using a suite of gene expression analysis and modeling tools. Analysis of our data revealed that the tissue influx of neutrophils in ileal loops greatly influenced the host gene expression. Major differences in gene expression in relevant fields of Salmonella research including inflammation and immune response, Toll-like receptor signaling, cytokine profiles, apoptosis, and intracellular defense against infection are discussed.