# Browsing by Subject "frequency divider"

Now showing 1 - 2 of 2

###### Results Per Page

###### Sort Options

Item Clock Generation Design for Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Analog-To-Digital Converter in Communication Systems(2014-12-16) Lo, Yung-ChungShow more Software defined radio, a highly digitized wireless receiver, has drawn huge attention in modern communication system because it can not only benefit from the advanced technologies but also exploit large digital calibration of digital signal processing (DSP) to optimize the performance of receivers. Continuous-time (CT) bandpass sigma-delta (??) modulator, used as an RF-to-digital converter, has been regarded as a potential solution for software defined ratio. The demand to support multiple standards motivates the development of a broadband CT bandpass ?? which can cover the most commercial spectrum of 1GHz to 4GHz in a modern communication system. Clock generation, a major building block in radio frequency (RF) integrated circuits (ICs), usually uses a phase-locked loop (PLL) to provide the required clock frequency to modulate/demodulate the informative signals. This work explores the design of clock generation in RF ICs. First, a 2-16 GHz frequency synthesizer is proposed to provide the sampling clocks for a programmable continuous-time bandpass sigma-delta (??) modulator in a software radio receiver system. In the frequency synthesizer, a single-sideband mixer combines feed-forward and regenerative mixing techniques to achieve the wide frequency range. Furthermore, to optimize the excess loop delay in the wideband system, a phase-tunable clock distribution network and a clock-controlled quantizer are proposed. Also, the false locking of regenerative mixing is solved by controlling the self-oscillation frequency of the CML divider. The proposed frequency synthesizer performs excellent jitter performance and efficient power consumption. Phase noise and quadrature phase accuracy are the common tradeoff in a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator. A larger coupling ratio is preferred to obtain good phase accuracy but suffer phase noise performance. To address these fundamental trade-offs, a phasor-based analysis is used to explain bi-modal oscillation and compute the quadrature phase errors given by inevitable mismatches of components. Also, the ISF is used to estimate the noise contribution of each major noise source. A CSD QVCO is first proposed to eliminate the undesired bi-modal oscillation and enhance the quadrature phase accuracy. The second work presents a DCC QVCO. The sophisticated dynamic current-clipping coupling network reduces injecting noise into LC tank at most vulnerable timings (zero crossing points). Hence, it allows the use of strong coupling ratio to minimize the quadrature phase sensitivity to mismatches without degrading the phase noise performance. The proposed DCC QVCO is implemented in a 130-nm CMOS technology. The measured phase noise is -121 dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from a 5GHz carrier. The QVCO consumes 4.2mW with a 1-V power supply, resulting in an outstanding Figure of Merit (FoM) of 189 dBc/Hz. Frequency divider is one of the most power hungry building blocks in a PLL-based frequency synthesizer. The complementary injection-locked frequency divider is proposed to be a low-power solution. With the complimentary injection schemes, the dividers can realize both even and odd division modulus, performing a more than 100% locking range to overcome the PVT variation. The proposed dividers feature excellent phase noise. They can be used for multiple-phase generation, programmable phase-switching frequency dividers, and phase-skewing circuits.Show more Item Frequency Synthesis in Wireless and Wireline Systems(2010-12-06) Turker, Didem 1981-Show more First, a frequency synthesizer for IEEE 802.15.4 / ZigBee transceiver applications that employs dynamic True Single Phase Clocking (TSPC) circuits in its frequency dividers is presented and through the analysis and measurement results of this synthesizer, the need for low power circuit techniques in frequency dividers is discussed. Next, Differential Cascode Voltage-Switch-Logic (DCVSL) based delay cells are explored for implementing radio-frequency (RF) frequency dividers of low power frequency synthesizers. DCVSL ip- ops offer small input and clock capacitance which makes the power consumption of these circuits and their driving stages, very low. We perform a delay analysis of DCVSL circuits and propose a closed-form delay model that predicts the speed of DCVSL circuits with 8 percent worst case accuracy. The proposed delay model also demonstrates that DCVSL circuits suffer from a large low-to-high propagation delay ( PLH) which limits their speed and results in asymmetrical output waveforms. Our proposed enhanced DCVSL, which we call DCVSL-R, solves this delay bottleneck, reducing PLH and achieving faster operation. We implement two ring-oscillator-based voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) in 0.13 mu m technology with DCVSL and DCVSL-R delay cells. In measurements, for the same oscillation frequency (2.4GHz) and same phase noise (-113dBc/Hz at 10MHz), DCVSL-R VCO consumes 30 percent less power than the DCVSL VCO. We also use the proposed DCVSL-R circuit to implement the 2.4GHz dual-modulus prescaler of a low power frequency synthesizer in 0.18 mu m technology. In measurements, the synthesizer exhibits -135dBc/Hz phase noise at 10MHz offset and 58 mu m settling time with 8.3mW power consumption, only 1.07mWof which is consumed by the dual modulus prescaler and the buffer that drives it. When compared to other dual modulus prescalers with similar division ratios and operating frequencies in literature, DCVSL-R dual modulus prescaler demonstrates the lowest power consumption. An all digital phase locked loop (ADPLL) that operates for a wide range of frequencies to serve as a multi-protocol compatible PLL for microprocessor and serial link applications, is presented. The proposed ADPLL is truly digital and is implemented in a standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology without any analog/RF or non-scalable components. It addresses the challenges that come along with continuous wide range of operation such as stability and phase frequency detection for a large frequency error range. A proposed multi-bit bidirectional smart shifter serves as the digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) control and tunes the DCO frequency by turning on/off inverter units in a large row/column matrix that constitute the ring oscillator. The smart shifter block is completely digital, consisting of standard cell logic gates, and is capable of tracking the row/column unit availability of the DCO and shifting multiple bits per single update cycle. This enables fast frequency acquisition times without necessitating dual loop fi lter or gear shifting mechanisms. The proposed ADPLL loop architecture does not employ costly, cumbersome DACs or binary to thermometer converters and minimizes loop filter and DCO control complexity. The wide range ADPLL is implemented in 90nm digital CMOS technology and has a 9-bit TDC, the output of which is processed by a 10-bit digital loop filter and a 5-bit smart shifter. In measurements, the synthesizer achieves 2.5GHz-7.3GHz operation while consuming 10mW/GHz power, with an active area of 0.23 mm2.Show more