In this thesis, we study two optimization problems which have a lot of important applications in diverse domains: Line Cover Problem (LCP) in Computational Geometry and Maximum Genus Embedding (MGE) in Topological Graph Theory.
We study LCP whose decision version is known NP-Complete from the perspective of Parameterized Complexity, as well as classical techniques in Algorithm Design. In particular, we provide an exact algorithm in time O(n^3 2n) based on Dynamic Programming and initiate a dual problem of LCP in terms of Linear Programming Duality. We study the dual problem by applying approximation and kernelization, obtaining an approximation algorithm with ratio k - 1 and a kernel of size O(k^4).
Then we survey related geometric properties on LCP. Finally we propose a Parameterized Algorithm to solve LCP with running time O*(k^k/1:35^k).
We explore connections between the maximum genus of a graph and its cycle space consisting of fundamental cycles only. We revisit a known incorrect approach of finding a maximum genus embedding via computing a maximum pairing of intersected fundamental cycles with respect to an arbitrary spanning tree. We investigate the reason it failed and conclude it confused the concept of deficiency. Also, we characterize the upper-embeddablity of a graph in terms of maximum pairings of intersected fundamental cycles, i.e. a graph is upper-embeddable if and only if the number of maximum pairings of intersected fundamental cycles for any spanning tree is the same. Finally, we present a lower and an upper bound of the maximum number of vertex-disjoint cycles in a general graph, beta(G) - 2gammaM(G) and beta(G) - gammaM(G), only depending on maximum genus and cycle rank.