Carbon Footprint Analysis Of A Large Diameter Water Transmission Pipeline Installation
The term pipeline refers to a long line of connected segments of pipe, with pumps, valves, control devices, and other equipment or facilities needed for operating the system. Water transmission pipelines are generally large diameter (more than 12 in.) pipes which transport the water from one place to another. Installation of these pipes is a complex process due to variability of ground conditions over long distance installations. Sometimes, it is difficult to relate pipelines to the environment because of the out of sight nature. But it follows a close relationship with our environment due to various energy consuming activities involved in pipeline installation such as, pipe manufacturing, transporting the pipe to the job site, installation of pipe in the trench, and operation and maintenances. Since, every construction operation impacts the environment, it becomes utmost important for the owner and the design engineer to evaluate this impact and take necessary steps to minimize it. To analyze project life cycle cost and to make ecological decisions, carbon footprint consideration should be included in the planning and design phase of the project. A carbon footprint is "the total set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event or product." For simplicity of reporting, it is often expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted.To understand the implication of carbon footprints, an actual pipeline project was analyzed to determine the ecological impact of two pipes such as, Steel and Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe (PCCP). It was found that manufacturing the pipe consumes huge amount of energy for both steel and Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe (PCCP) and it was the major contributor for CO2 emissions for this study. Transportation of pipe, installation, and operation of pipeline were the other phases analyzed for this thesis. It was found that the fuel consumption during the transportation is directly proportional to the weight of each pipe section, length of each pipe section, and distance between the manufacturing plant and the job site. Fuel consumption by construction equipment for installation of pipe in the trench was found to be similar for both steel pipe and Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe (PCCP). The energy consumption and CO2 emission for operating the pipeline for next 50 years were same due to similar lining materials considered for both pipes. Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe (PCCP) pipe was found to have smaller carbon footprints due to less CO2 emissions in the environment.