Firm-level Entrepreneurship And Performance: An Examination And Extension Of Relationships And Measurements Of The Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct
Academic research in various areas of entrepreneurship has gained momentum over the past three decades. A primary topic of interest has been the characteristics of entrepreneurial organizations, often referred to as the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of the firm. The current study investigates past contributions in this stream of literature, seeking to provide definitive evidence of previously examined relationships. Further, the study analyzes several moderating influences and provides a new model for assessing a firm's EO.
A meta-analytic statistical procedure is applied in the empirical portion of this dissertation. The base models of interest are the relationships between EO, innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking and firm performance. These models represent the examination of EO as both a unidimensional and multidimensional concept, consistent with past empirical studies. The influences of environmental munificence, dynamism and hostility are then considered as possible moderators of each of the previously described relationships. A new approach to meta-analytic moderation analyses is presented which utilizes calculated partial correlation values.
A primary contribution is the development of a weighted-unidimensional approach to the measurement of EO. Debate has surrounded the measurement of EO for the past decade. The proposed measurement approach satisfies both the empirical arguments (or concerns) of some researchers while also considering the important theoretical arguments which have been made in the dimensionality debate.
Several other moderating influences are also considered, including the type of performance measure utilized, the international/domestic nature of past studies, the type of EO scale used, and they type of sample used in the study. Results provide interesting insights into EO literature. Implications of the current study and avenues for future contributions in this stream of research are discussed.