Evaluation of agricultural disinfectants and necrotic enteritis preventatives in broiler chickens



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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of time, temperature and organic matter on disinfectant efficacy. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) were used as organisms to represent Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, respectively, commonly found in poultry housing. Three independent experiments evaluated the effect of temperature, time, and organic matter on the efficacy of working concentrations of disinfectants against representative organisms found in commercial poultry housing. Quaternary ammonium, chlorhexidine, phenolic and binary ammonium based solutions represented disinfectants commonly used within the poultry industry. Results from these experiments indicated that long term storage of disinfectants will reduce their efficacy against SA. However, a reduction (p ? 0.05) in efficacy was observed with the phenolic compound against ST at elevated temperatures. Following the inclusion of organic matter (OM), reduced (p ? 0.05) efficacy of all disinfectants was observed in a dose dependent manner against both organisms, with the exception of the phenolic compound against SA. Fresh disinfectant performed better (p ? 0.05) in the presence of OM than 30 wk old disinfectant. These results emphasize the need to use fresh disinfectants and that OM should be removed prior to disinfection. We also evaluated the effect of bismuth citrate, lactose and citric acids on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. Clostridium perfringens? associated necrotic enteritis in poultry causes significant loss and increased morbidity in the industry. Due to the reduced usage of antibiotic growth promoters, the incidence of necrotic enteritis has increased. These experiments evaluated different levels of bismuth citrate and bismuth citrate with lactose or citric acid added, on lesion development, bacterial intestinal colonization of C. perfringens and pH levels in the gut of broilers orally challenged with C.perfringens. Results from this investigation indicate that bismuth citrate at 100 ppm and 200 ppm caused a reduction (p ? 0.05) in C. perfringens colonization and intestinal lesion development. The addition of dietary lactose to bismuth citrate enhanced the effect of bismuth citrate on intestinal lesion development. These data suggest that bismuth citrate alone or in combination with dietary lactose will reduce intestinal lesion development in broilers with necrotic enteritis.