Machining dynamics and stability analysis in longitudinal turning involving workpiece whirling
Tool chatter in longitudinal turning is addressed with a new perspective using a complex machining model describing the coupled tool-workpiece dynamics subject to nonlinear regenerative cutting forces, instantaneous depth-of-cut (DOC) and workpiece whirling due to material imbalance. The workpiece is modeled as a system of three rotors: unmachined, being machined and machined, connected by a flexible shaft. The model enables workpiece motions relative to the tool and tool motions relative to the machining surface to be three-dimensionally established as functions of spindle speed, instantaneous DOC, rate of material removal and whirling. Excluding workpiece vibrations from the cutting model is found improper. A rich set of nonlinear behaviors of both the tool and the workpiece including period-doubling bifurcation and chaos signifying the extent of machining instability at various DOCs is observed. Presented numerical results agree favorably with physical experiments reported in the literature. It is found that whirling is non-negligible if the fundamental characteristics of machining dynamics are to be fully understood. The 3D model is explored along with its 1D counterpart, which considers only tool motions and disregards workpiece vibrations. Numerical simulations reveal diverse behaviors for the 3D coupled and 1D uncoupled equations of motion for the tool. Most notably, observations made with regard to the inconsistency in describing stability limits raise the concern for using 1D models to obtain stability charts. The nonlinear 3D model is linearized to investigate the implications of applying linear models to the understanding of machining dynamics. Taylor series expansion about the operating point where optimal machining conditions are desired is applied to linearize the model equations of motion. Modifications are also made to the nonlinear tool stiffness term to minimize linearization errors. Numerical experiments demonstrate inadmissible results for the linear model and good agreement with available physical data in describing machining stability and chatter for the nonlinear model. Effects of tool geometry, feed rate, and spindle speed on cutting dynamics are also explored. It is observed that critical DOC increases with increasing spindle speed and small DOCs can induce cutting instability -- two of the results that agree qualitatively well with published experimental data.