Tetraphosphine Linker Scaffolds with a Tetraphenyltin Core for Superior Immobilized Catalysts: A Solid-State NMR Study



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The focus of this work is to synthesize and immobilize novel rigid tetraphosphine linkers via the formation of phosphonium groups and by direct adsorption of tetraphosphine salts on oxide surfaces. These methods offer the possibility to study the mechanism of the phosphonium formation in more detail by utilizing solid-state NMR spectroscopy. It has also been a point of interest to study the linkers and catalysts under realistic conditions, in the presence of solvents. Therefore, HRMAS (high-resolution magic angle spinning) NMR spectra of several phosphonium salts, adsorbed on SiO2, have been studied. This technique allows one to probe the leaching and mobility of the linkers on the surface. The mobilities of the linkers and the catalysts are crucial factors for the performance and design of the immobilized catalysts. Finally, since the exact mode of binding to the surface is unknown and is being discussed in the literature, for example, as hydrogen bonding between the F atoms in BF4- and surface silanol protons, the influence of the counteranion on the binding of phosphonium salts on silica surfaces is of utmost interest. For surface mobility studies a monolayer of phosphonium salts on the silica surface, both without solvent and in the presence of solvent, has been studied via 31P and 2H CP/MAS and HRMAS. Our findings show that the integrity of the tetraphosphine scaffold linkers is based upon how it is immobilized. The best system is formed when the phosphine is immobilized on the SiO2 support by adding Cl(CH2)3Si(OEt)3 to the reaction mixture. In this way, phosphonium salts are obtained, which are bound to the surface irreversibly by electrostatic interactions, as proven by solid-state NMR. In addition, leaching and mobility studies prove that the solvents play a crucial role, and the more polar solvents, such as DMSO, lead to the most extensive leaching due to the solvents' strong adsorption on the SiO2 surface. Leaching studies also show that the counteranion has an influence on the binding of the phosphoniumn salts on the SiO2 surface. The leaching proceeds in the following manner: BF4- > I- > Br- > Cl-. This is an indication that there is an additional interaction between the anion and, most probably, the surface silanol protons.