Human presence detection using millimeter-wave radiometry



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A novel method of human presence detection using passive millimeter-wave sensors is presented. The method focuses on detecting a standing human from a moving platform in a cluttered outdoor environment using millimeter-wave radiometry, which has not been attempted before. Ka-band radiometers are used in total power mode as well as correlation mode, which ideally responds well to self-luminous objects such as humans. The intrinsic radiative power from a human is derived as well as the responses of the total power and correlation mode. The application of correlation radiometer theory to the detection of self-luminous objects at close range is presented in the context of human presence detection. Modifications and additions to techniques developed in radio astronomy and remote sensing for close range terrestrial situations are developed and discussed. The correlation radiometer fringe frequency is analyzed in the context of the scanning beam detection system and is estimated using MUSIC and ESPRIT. Detection and classification of humans is accomplished using a Naïve Bayesian classifier. The performance of the classifier is measured using the F1-measure and the receiver operating characteristic.