Cross-layer perceptual optimization for wireless video transmission
Bandwidth-intensive video streaming applications occupy an overwhelming fraction of bandwidth-limited wireless network traffic. Compressed video data are highly structured and the psycho-visual perception of distortions and losses closely depends on that structure. This dissertation exploits the inherent video data structure to develop perceptually-optimized transmission paradigms at different protocol layers that improve video quality of experience, introduce error resilience, and enable supporting more video users.
First, we consider the problem of network-wide perceptual quality optimization whereby different video users with (possibly different) real-time delay constraints are sharing wireless channel resources. Due to the inherently stochastic nature of wireless fading channels, we provide statistical delay guarantees using the theory of effective capacity. We derive the resource allocation policy that maximizes the sum video quality and show that the optimal operating point per user is such that the rate-distortion slope is the inverse of the supported video source rate per unit bandwidth, termed source spectral efficiency. We further propose a scheduling policy that maximizes the number of scheduled users that meet their QoS requirement.
Next, we develop user-level perceptual quality optimization techniques for non-scalable video streams. For non-scalable videos, we estimate packet loss visibility through a generalized linear model and use for prioritized packet delivery. We solve the problem of mapping video packets to MIMO subchannels and adapting per-stream rates to maximize the total perceptual value of successfully delivered packets per unit time. We show that the solution enables jointly reaping gains in terms of improved video quality and lower latency. Optimized packet-stream mapping enables transmission of more relevant packets over more reliable streams while unequal modulation opportunistically increases the transmission rate on the stronger streams to enable low latency delivery of high priority packets.
Finally, we develop user-level perceptual quality optimization techniques for scalable video streams. We propose online learning of the mapping between packet losses and quality degradation using nonparametric regression. This quality-loss mapping is subsequently used to provide unequal error protection for different video layers with perceptual quality guarantees. Channel-aware scalable codec adaptation and buffer management policies simultaneously ensure continuous high-quality playback. Across the various contributions, analytic results as well as video transmission simulations demonstrate the value of perceptual optimization in improving video quality and capacity.