Discriminative object categorization with external semantic knowledge
Visual object category recognition is one of the most challenging problems in computer vision. Even assuming that we can obtain a near-perfect instance level representation with the advances in visual input devices and low-level vision techniques, object categorization still remains as a difficult problem because it requires drawing boundaries between instances in a continuous world, where the boundaries are solely defined by human conceptualization. Object categorization is essentially a perceptual process that takes place in a human-defined semantic space. In this semantic space, the categories reside not in isolation, but in relation to others. Some categories are similar, grouped, or co-occur, and some are not. However, despite this semantic nature of object categorization, most of the today's automatic visual category recognition systems rely only on the category labels for training discriminative recognition with statistical machine learning techniques. In many cases, this could result in the recognition model being misled into learning incorrect associations between visual features and the semantic labels, from essentially overfitting to training set biases. This limits the model's prediction power when new test instances are given. Using semantic knowledge has great potential to benefit object category recognition. First, semantic knowledge could guide the training model to learn a correct association between visual features and the categories. Second, semantics provide much richer information beyond the membership information given by the labels, in the form of inter-category and category-attribute distances, relations, and structures. Finally, the semantic knowledge scales well as the relations between categories become larger with an increasing number of categories. My goal in this thesis is to learn discriminative models for categorization that leverage semantic knowledge for object recognition, with a special focus on the semantic relationships among different categories and concepts. To this end, I explore three semantic sources, namely attributes, taxonomies, and analogies, and I show how to incorporate them into the original discriminative model as a form of structural regularization. In particular, for each form of semantic knowledge I present a feature learning approach that defines a semantic embedding to support the object categorization task. The regularization penalizes the models that deviate from the known structures according to the semantic knowledge provided. The first semantic source I explore is attributes, which are human-describable semantic characteristics of an instance. While the existing work treated them as mid-level features which did not introduce new information, I focus on their potential as a means to better guide the learning of object categories, by enforcing the object category classifiers to share features with attribute classifiers, in a multitask feature learning framework. This approach essentially discovers the common low-dimensional features that support predictions in both semantic spaces. Then, I move on to the semantic taxonomy, which is another valuable source of semantic knowledge. The merging and splitting criteria for the categories on a taxonomy are human-defined, and I aim to exploit this implicit semantic knowledge. Specifically, I propose a tree of metrics (ToM) that learns metrics that capture granularity-specific similarities at different nodes of a given semantic taxonomy, and uses a regularizer to isolate granularity-specific disjoint features. This approach captures the intuition that the features used for the discrimination of the parent class should be different from the features used for the children classes. Such learned metrics can be used for hierarchical classification. The use of a single taxonomy can be limited in that its structure is not optimal for hierarchical classification, and there may exist no single optimal semantic taxonomy that perfectly aligns with visual distributions. Thus, I next propose a way to overcome this limitation by leveraging multiple taxonomies as semantic sources to exploit, and combine the acquired complementary information across multiple semantic views and granularities. This allows us, for example, to synthesize semantics from both 'Biological', and 'Appearance'-based taxonomies when learning the visual features. Finally, as a further exploration of more complex semantic relations different from the previous two pairwise similarity-based models, I exploit analogies, which encode the relational similarities between two related pairs of categories. Specifically, I use analogies to regularize a discriminatively learned semantic embedding space for categorization, such that the displacements between the two category embeddings in both category pairs of the analogy are enforced to be the same. Such a constraint allows for a more confusing pair of categories to benefit from a clear separation in the matched pair of categories that share the same relation. All of these methods are evaluated on challenging public datasets, and are shown to effectively improve the recognition accuracy over purely discriminative models, while also guiding the recognition to be more semantic to human perception. Further, the applications of the proposed methods are not limited to visual object categorization in computer vision, but they can be applied to any classification problems where there exists some domain knowledge about the relationships or structures between the classes. Possible applications of my methods outside the visual recognition domain include document classification in natural language processing, and gene-based animal or protein classification in computational biology.