Wheat interactions with Italian ryegrass; forage production and quality in pure and mixed stands of wheat, oats, and ryegrass; and halosulfuron interaction with soils
A growth room experiment compared seedling growth after nine weeks of two wheat genotypes in pure cultures and mixtures with Italian ryegrass at a low phosphorus (P) level and the P level recommended by soil testing. At the recommended P level in both pure and mixed culture, Mit, a semi-dwarf genotype, had a greater height, leaf area, tiller number, and dry weight of leaves, stems and roots than did Kharkof, a landrace. These results reflected the visual selection criteria for seedling vigor and tillering used in the initial development of the semi-dwarf cultivars. Field experiments compared total dry matter, calories, and percent crude protein and acid detergent fiber of oats, wheat, and ryegrass in pure culture and mixtures at four locations in central Texas at first clipping, second clipping, and unclipped. Although, forage yield was lower for the first clipping than the second clipping or the unclipped treatment, the first clipping had the best forage quality. There was a strong environmental influence on yield and quality. The best forage was pure wheat at College Station, pure ryegrass at Marlin, the wheat-ryegrass mixture at Temple, and pure oats at Thrall. Since Temple had the greatest yield of any site, the wheat-ryegrass mixture demonstrated the highest yield potential. The soil adsorption characteristics of halosulfuron was examined using six soils. Soil adsorption of halosulfuron appeared to be a function of organic matter. Low Kf,ads values indicated that a relatively high plant availability of halosulfuron could be available for plant uptake. Sorghum produced in soils with a low organic matter content may experience injury because of the high plant availability.