Food quality and properties of quality protein maize.
Quality protein maize (QPM), high protein corn (HPC) and food grade maize (FGM) were processed into tortillas and direct expanded extruded snacks. QPM had similar test weight, density and kernel size with 45% more lysine and 38% more tryptophan compared to FGM. HPC had the largest kernel with density and test weight similar to FGM. During alkaline cooking, HPC absorbed water faster than QPM and FGM. White QPM required shorter cooking time and had less dry matter losses compared to FGM. All corn varieties had excellent pericarp removal at the optimum cooking time. Tortillas from QPM had better pliability and rollability after storage compared to FGM and HPC. HPC tortillas had lower rupture force after storage. The use of QPM for tortilla production may reduce energy and sewage cost, and could produce a tortilla with longer shelf stability with improved nutritional value. Decorticated and non-decorticated QPM, FGM and HPC grain were processed into corn meal and direct expanded snacks. A modified short scale dry milling system was used to produce the corn meal. QPM produced more coarse meal with greater fat content compared to FGM. Decortication decreased fiber content and coarse meal yield. Non-decorticated meal had greater protein, fiber and fat content compared to decorticated meal. The modified short flow milling system provides reduced lost fractions for extrusion into nutritionally improved products. Extrusion was performed in a low cost friction extruder. QPM extruded faster than FGM and HPC. FGM required greater specific mechanical energy than QPM. Extrudates from FGM were the most expanded followed by QPM and HPC. Extrudates from the three corn varieties were acceptable to the panelists and decortication did not affect acceptability. The improved nutritional value of QPM, was retained during dry milling and extrusion. Current QPM varieties can be processed into tortillas with longer shelf stability and meal for extrusion into a wide variety of snacks and other foods. These may have application in specialty health foods and in developing countries where maize is a staple food.