Residential Use of Building Integrated Photo Voltaics



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Building Integrated Photo Voltaics (BIPVs) are devices which are manufactured to replace building components exposed to sufficient sunlight to generate energy. Photo Voltaic Roof tiles are Building Integrated components which can be used instead of traditional roofing materials. The following thesis is focused on comparing traditional, cheaper asphalt roof tiles with Photo Voltaic (PV) roofing tiles in terms of energy cost savings during their respective Net Present Values. The method used for achieving this is computer simulation made possible by software named "Solar Advisory Model" (SAM), developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL), to simulate energy output and resultant energy costs saved. The simulations have been run on a prototype example of a model of a dwelling unit's roof area. The simulations have been repeated for 35 cities all over the U.S.A. for 5 different climatic zones on the same prototype example of the dwelling unit. Similarly, the roof area being laid with an array of PV roof tiles has been estimated for coverage by traditional asphalt roof shingles by using data from the RS Means construction costs data. The estimated costs associated with the asphalt roof area have been adjusted to a different set of 35 locations from the 5 climatic zones by using the location factor from RS Means.

A statistical analysis was done to analyze the data, net present value of roofing materials being the dependent variable versus climatic zones and roofing material as the independent variables. The statistical model also included CDD (Cooling Degree Days) and HDD (Heating Degree Days) as co-variates. The results indicate that NPV (Net Present Value) of BIPV roof is significantly different from that of asphalt roof.

Another statistical analysis was done to determine the effect of climatic zones on energy savings due to the use of BIPV roofing. Energy savings (in US$) was used as a dependent variable, and climatic zone as the independent variable. HDD AND CDD were also included in this model as co-variates. The results of this test indicate that both climatic zone and HDD have an effect on total energy savings.