Advanced Reduction Processes - A New Class of Treatment Processes
A new class of treatment processes called Advanced Reduction Processes (ARP) has been proposed. The ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening experiments were conducted to identify effective ARP by applying several combinations of activation methods (ultraviolet light, ultrasound, electron beam, microwaves) and reducing agents (dithionite, sulfite, ferrous iron, sulfide) to degradation of five target contaminants (perchlorate, nitrate, perfluorooctanoic acid, 2,4 dichlorophenol, 1,2 dichloroethane) at 3 pH levels (2.4, 7.0, 11.2). These experiments identified the combination of sulfite activated by ultraviolet light produced by a low pressure mercury vapor lamp as an effective ARP. More detailed kinetic experiments were conducted with nitrate and perchlorate as target compounds and nitrate was found to degrade more rapidly than perchlorate. The effects of pH, sulfite concentration, and light intensity on perchlorate and nitrate degradation were investigated. The effectiveness of the sulfite/UV-L treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate.