Term Structure Dynamics with Macroeconomic Factors
Affine term structure models (ATSMs) are known to have a trade-off in predicting future Treasury yields and fitting the time-varying volatility of interest rates. First, I empirically study the role of macroeconomic variables in simultaneously achieving these two goals under affine models. To this end, I incorporate a liquidity demand theory via a measure of the velocity of money into affine models. I find that this considerably reduces the statistical tension between matching the first and second moments of interest rates. In terms of forecasting yields, the models with the velocity of money outperform among the ATSMs examined, including those with inflation and real activity. My result is robust across maturities, forecasting horizons, risk price specifications, and the number of latent factors. Next, I incorporate latent macro factors and the spread factor between the short-term Treasury yield and the federal funds rate into an affine term structure model by imposing cross-equation restrictions from no-arbitrage using daily data. In doing so, I identify the highfrequency monetary policy rule that describes the central bank's reaction to expected inflation and real activity at daily frequency. I find that my affine model with macro factors and the spread factor shows better forecasting performance.