The roles of Shroom family proteins during Xenopus development

dc.contributor.advisorWallingford, John B.en
dc.creatorLee, Chan-jaeen
dc.date.accessioned2009-10-16T17:57:26Zen
dc.date.accessioned2017-05-11T22:19:39Z
dc.date.available2009-10-16T17:57:26Zen
dc.date.available2017-05-11T22:19:39Z
dc.date.issued2009-05en
dc.descriptiontexten
dc.description.abstractThe Shroom family of proteins is currently comprised of four members, Shroom1, 2, 3 and 4. Since Shroom3 was shown to be a critical protein for neural tube closure, the other three proteins are also expected to play an important role for proper development. However, their functions during development were not clear. To address this, my study started with Shroom3 function in the neural plate. Shroom3 had been previously known to induce apical constriction by controlling actin filaments in neuroepithelial cells. My studies show that Shroom3 induces apico-basal cell heightening by controlling parallel microtubule assembly. Shroom3 is able to change the distribution of γ-tubulin, suggesting that Shroom3 controls apical constriction and apico-basal cell elongation via both actin filaments and microtubules. The ability to control γ-tubulin distribution is possessed not only by Shroom3, but also by all other Shroom proteins, although they can not induce apical constriction. In addition, they are expressed in tissues which contain apico-basally elongated cells. Data from functional assays with Shroom2 show that it induces cell elongation and is required for proper cell shape in deep layer neuroepithelial cells in Xenopus. These data suggest that Shroom family proteins control cell architecture during morphogenetic development. I have discovered another role for Shroom2. By comparative analysis with Xenopus and Physalaemus, which have different pigment patterns in eggs, I show that a high level of maternal Shroom2 mRNA is important for pigment polarity in Xenopus. Furthermore, Shroom2 controls the distribution of spectrin which plays a role in pigment granule movement. Thus, Shroom2 is suggested to be a key molecule to control the pigment polarity in amphibian eggs. Together all these data suggest that Shroom family proteins play a role in cell morphogenesis and polarization via controlling the cytoskeleton during Xenopus development.en
dc.description.departmentInstitute for Cellular and Molecular Biologyen
dc.format.mediumelectronicen
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2152/6544en
dc.language.isoengen
dc.rightsCopyright is held by the author. Presentation of this material on the Libraries' web site by University Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin was made possible under a limited license grant from the author who has retained all copyrights in the works.en
dc.subjectShroom family proteinsen
dc.subjectXenopus developmenten
dc.subjectShroom3en
dc.subjectShroom2en
dc.subjectCell morphogenesisen
dc.subjectPolarizationen
dc.subjectPigment polarityen
dc.titleThe roles of Shroom family proteins during Xenopus developmenten

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