Modeling defective part level due to static and dynamic defects based upon site observation and excitation balance



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Texas A&M University


Manufacture testing of digital integrated circuits is essential for high quality. However, exhaustive testing is impractical, and only a small subset of all possible test patterns (or test pattern pairs) may be applied. Thus, it is crucial to choose a subset that detects a high percentage of the defective parts and produces a low defective part level. Historically, test pattern generation has often been seen as a deterministic endeavor. Test sets are generated to deterministically ensure that a large percentage of the targeted faults are detected. However, many real defects do not behave like these faults, and a test set that detects them all may still miss many defects. Unfortunately, modeling all possible defects as faults is impractical. Thus, it is important to fortuitously detect unmodeled defects using high quality test sets. To maximize fortuitous detection, we do not assume a high correlation between faults and actual defects. Instead, we look at the common requirements for all defect detection. We deterministically maximize the observations of the leastobserved sites while randomly exciting the defects that may be present. The resulting decrease in defective part level is estimated using the MPGD model. This dissertation describes the MPGD defective part level model and shows how it can be used to predict defective part levels resulting from static defect detection. Unlike many other predictors, its predictions are a function of site observations, not fault coverage, and thus it is generally more accurate at high fault coverages. Furthermore, its components model the physical realities of site observation and defect excitation, and thus it can be used to give insight into better test generation strategies. Next, we investigate the effect of additional constraints on the fortuitous detection of defects-specifically, as we focus on detecting dynamic defects instead of static ones. We show that the quality of the randomness of excitation becomes increasingly important as defect complexity increases. We introduce a new metric, called excitation balance, to estimate the quality of the excitation, and we show how excitation balance relates to the constant ? in the MPGD model.