Fertility-Based Herbicide Injury Recovery from Clomazone in Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.)



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Clomazone is a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor commonly used as a preemergence and postemergence herbicide in rice for the control of grass weeds. Rice injury can occur and symptoms are often associated with soil characteristics and environmental conditions. The objective of this research was to investigate how environmental conditions and planting density influence clomazone injury in rice plants. Also, different fertility treatments were assessed to determine if remediation from clomazone injury occurred. Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to determine the role of planting date, planting density and soil characteristics on clomazone injury in rice plants. Also, another field study was conducted in 2010 to assess any clomazone injury remediation benefits selected fertility treatments might have in rice cropping systems.

In the 2008 and 2009 field studies, hybrid rice was seeded at three densities that comprised a range of slightly lower, slightly higher and commonly recommended planting rates. Two planting dates, March and April, were a test parameter to simulate early and optimal planting dates. Two locations with different soil characteristics, near Eagle Lake and Beaumont, TX, were the study sites. Clomazone herbicide treatments were applied at different rates and timings following planting. Visual injury ratings and yield data were collected during this two-year, two location study.

Clomazone injury in rice was more severe in the coarse-textured soils planted at the early, March planting date near Eagle Lake. Visual injury ratings as high as 90% were observed in some plots. Injury was less severe in the April planting date near Eagle Lake, and at both planting timings near Beaumont. In both locations, clomazone injury did not translate into yield loss at any seeding rate or planting timing.

In 2010, field studies were conducted near Eagle Lake and Ganado, TX to assess fertility-based clomazone injury remediation. In one experiment, hybrid rice plots were subject to linearly increasing rates of clomazone herbicide to produce a standard curve of clomazone injury. In the second experiment, a uniform, label rate of clomazone was applied to induce injury for the assessment of the effect of fertility amendments on clomazone-injured rice. Fertility treatments consisted of nitrogen-based fertilizers and foliar-applied iron sulfate and magnesium sulfate. Visual injury ratings, plant height, and yield were collected during the study. Also, tissue samples were collected three times for laboratory analysis of chlorophyll content.

In the standard curve experiment, herbicide injury increased with increasingly higher rates of clomazone applied. The highest visual injury was observed in plots receiving the highest rates of clomazone. In the remediation experiment, fertility treatments had a significant effect in only one tissue-sampling event at Eagle Lake as determined by laboratory analysis for chlorophyll content. Fertility amendments did not have a significant effect on visual injury ratings at either location at any assessment event. Specific fertility treatments significantly increased plant height in three measurement events, and yield at the Ganado locations. Plots receiving treatments containing nitrogen fertilizers produced taller plants at both locations, and increased yield at the Ganado location.