Sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women: a mixed methods paradigm

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A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education.
The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King & King, 1993). A total of 183 participants, 86 males and 97 females, completed the SRES-BB. Results revealed statistically significant differences in male and female total scores on the SRES-BB. Participants were purposefully selected to engage in the follow-up interview process. There were a total of eight participants. Eight themes were identified that depicted the perceived gender role socialization experiences of the participants: instillation of religious/spiritual values, familial generational socialization, gender role flexibility, male gender role norms, female gender role norms, ethnic cultural differences in gender role socialization, the influence of educational accomplishment on gender role socialization, and the influence of society and social networking on gender role attitudes. Overall the results depicted the African Americans in this sample as less egalitarian than asserted in much of the literature (Bryant & Beckett, 1997; Davenport & Yurich, 1991; Stanik & Bryant, 2012). The interviews supported and expanded existing literature on themes relevant to understanding the gender role socialization experiences of some African Americans to include installation of religious values, diversity in roles assumed by African American women, and perceived ethnic cultural differences in the gender role socialization experience. Results of this study provided several implications for counselor educators and practitioners: the relevance of broaching race and gender when working with African American clients, or students, awareness of the perception of privilege for middle and upper-class Whites highlighting the importance of exploring the intersectionality of status variables (e.g. race, gender, religion, etc.), and considering gender role socialization experiences when providing counseling and supervision to African Americans individually, as couples, and families.
Counseling & Educational Psychology
College of Education and Human Development