Phospholipids and Terpenes Enhance the Absorption of Polyphenolics in a Caco-2 Cell Model
Anthocyanins are the most important class of water-soluble pigments responsible for red to blue colors in various plants. Anthocyanins naturally occur in a broad range of plants and studies have shown associations between fruit consumption and reduction of certain diseases thought to be related to the presence of these and other polyphenolics. However, anthocyanin absorption is fairly poor which hinders their potential to be utilized in the human body. Absorption of anthocyanins extracted from a?a? puree and port wine was assessed. Various combinations of terpenes and phospholipids were added to anthocyanins to modulate and increase their transport within a model system. A?a? and port wine anthocyanins were poorly transported in the absence of phospholipids and terpenes. The addition of terpenes and phospholipids significantly increased the transport of anthocyanins. Additionally, the presence of phospholipids and terpenes did not influence the way anthocyanins degraded over a 40 day period of time at three different temperatures. Transport of anthocyanins was not dependent on dosage since absorption results were similar at both concentrations of anthocyanins tested. Two methods to mix anthocyanins, phospholipids, and terpenes were also assessed (Sonication and French Press). Comparisons illustrated that both technologies created matrices that maintained the properties of phospholipids and terpenes as transport enhancers. Finally, a study to determine the efficacy of phospholipids and terpenes on a different type of polyphenolic compound was assessed. Transport of gallic acid was enhanced by the use of these agents that cemented the idea that phospholipids and terpenes can enhance the transport of various types of polyphenolics. The aiding effect of phospholipids and terpenes was well established and could play an important role in future investigation in this field. Further research needs to be conducted to reveal more information about the nature of these vesicles or associations that phospholipids and terpenes may have with anthocyanins. In vivo studies need to be considered to confirm these effects in rat models and, ideally, in humans. Nevertheless, these findings open a new line of investigation that could harvest promising results for the future of ingredient development for food products.