Geoarchaeological investigations at the McNeill-Gonzales site (41VT141), Victoria County, Texas



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The McNeill-Gonzales site is a stratified multi-component prehistoric site in Victoria County, Texas. The site is located in approximately 2 meters of fine sand that mantle a fluvial terrace of the Guadalupe River. Geoarchaeological investigations were conducted at this site to determine the stratigraphy of the archaeological deposits, the processes that led to the formation of the site, and the integrity of the archaeological deposits. Three Holocene deposits of fine sand are mantling the tread and slope of a Pleistocene fluvial terrace of the Deweyville Formation. Granulometric studies and the stratigraphic position of the sands suggest the deposits are eolian in nature. Artifacts from the Late Paleoindian period (10,000 B.P.) to the Historic period were found in generally good stratigraphic position and made possible the correlation of the three deposits of fine sand across the site. There is evidence of bioturbation across the entire site and disturbance by colluvial action on the southeastern slopes of the site; however, intact human burials, hearth features, and artifacts in stratigraphic position indicate that secondary processes have not completely compromised the integrity of the archaeological deposits.