Acoustics from high-speed jets with crackle



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A scaling model based on an effective Gol'dberg number is proposed for predicting the presence of cumulative nonlinear distortions in the acoustic waveforms produced by high-speed jets. Two acoustic length scales, the shock formation distance and the absorption length are expressed in terms of jet exit parameters. This approach allows one to compute the degree of cumulative nonlinear distortion in a full-scale scenario, from laboratory-scale observations, or vice versa. Surveys of the acoustic pressure waveforms emitted by a laboratory-scale, shock-free and unheated Mach 3 jet are used to support the findings of the model. These acoustic waveforms are acquired on a planar grid in an acoustically treated and range-restricted environment. Various statistical metrics are employed to examine the degree of local and cumulative nonlinearity in the measured waveforms and their temporal derivatives. This includes skewness, kurtosis, the number of zero crossings in the waveform, a wave steepening factor, the Morfey-Howell nonlinearity indicator and an application of the generalized Burgers equation. It is advocated that in order for the Morfey-Howell indicator to be used as an investigative tool for the presence of cumulative nonlinear waveform distortion, that it be applied as a multi-point indicator. Based on findings of the model and the spatial topography of the metrics, it is concluded that cumulative nonlinear steepening effects are absent in the current data set. This implies that acoustic shock-structures in the waveforms are generated by local mechanisms in, or in close vicinity to, the jet's hydrodynamic region. Furthermore, these shock-structures induce the crackle noise component. The research aims to quantify crackle in a temporal and spectral fashion, and is motivated by the fact that (1) it is perceived as the most annoying component of jet noise, (2) no unique measures of crackle exist, and (3) significant reductions in jet noise will be achieved when crackle can be controlled. A unique detection algorithm is introduced which isolates the shock-structures in the temporal waveform that are responsible for crackle. Ensemble-averages of the identified waveform sections are employed to gain an in-depth understanding of the crackling structures. Moreover, PDF's of the temporal intermittence of these shocks reveal modal trends and show evidence that crackling shock-structures are present in groups of multiple shocks. A spectral measure of crackle is considered by using wavelet-based time-frequency analyses. The increase in sound energy is computed by considering the global pressure spectra of the waveforms and the ones that represent the spectral behavior during instances of crackle. This energy-based metric is postulated to be an appropriate metric for the level of crackle.