Operation and management of municipal water well fields for energy conservation
Taylor, John Scott
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Groundwater plays a major role in municipal water supply. Approximately three-fourths of the public water supply systems in the United States use groundwater. Thirty-five million persons depend solely on groundwater as their potable supply, as of 1978 (Bouwer, 1978). The operation of municipal well fields is energy intensive. It has been estimated by Helweg (1983) that inefficiencies in the groundwater supply systems waste 7.6x10^2 British Thermal Units (Btu) per year or 2.22x10^ kilowatt-hours (kwh). The majority of municipalities could decrease operating costs in their well fields by better operation and management.