Offshore mapping and modeling of Miocene-Recent extensional basins adjacent to metamorphic gneiss domes of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, eastern Papua New Guinea
Fitz, Guy Gregory
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The D'Entrecasteaux Island (DEI) gneiss domes are fault-bounded domes with ~2.5 km of relief exposing ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and high-pressure (HP) metamorphic gneisses and migmatites exhumed in an Oligocene-Miocene arc-continent collision and subduction zone subject to Late Miocene to Recent continental extension. To study the style of continental extension accompanying exhumation of the DEI gneiss domes, a grid of 1,518 km of 2-D multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data and well data is interpreted from the offshore areas surrounding the DEI, including the Trobriand basin and the Goodenough basin. The offshore study is combined with onshore geologic information to constrain the area's Oligocene to Recent basinal and tectonic evolution. MCS and well data show the Trobriand basin formed as a forearc basin caused by southward Miocene subduction at the Trobriand trench. Late Miocene basin inversion uplifted the southern and northern basin margins. Subduction slowed at ~8 Ma as the margin transitioned to an extensional tectonic environment. Since then, the Trobriand basin has subsided 1-2.5 km as a broad sag basin with few normal faults deforming the basin fill. South of the DEI, the Goodenough rift basin developed after extension began (~8 Ma) as the hanging-wall of the north-dipping Owen-Stanley normal fault bounding the southern margin of the basin. Rapid uplift of the adjacent footwall of the Owen-Stanley fault zone in the Papuan Peninsula accompanied the formation of the Goodenough submarine rift basin. The lack of upper crustal extension accompanying subsidence in the Trobriand and Goodenough basins suggests depth-dependent lithospheric extension from 8-0 Ma has accompanied uplift of the DEI gneiss domes. Structural reconstructions of seismic profiles show 2.3 to 13.4 km of basin extension in the upper crust, while syn-rift basin subsidence values indicate at least 20.7 to 23.6 km of extension occurred in the lower crust since ~8 Ma. Results indicating thinning is preferentially accommodated in the lower crust surrounding the DEI are used to constrain a schematic model of uplift of the DEI domes involving vertical exhumation of buoyant, post-orogenic lower crust, far-field extension from slab rollback, and an inverted two-layer crustal density structure.