Influence of Salinous Solutions in the Pressure and Volume Modulations of the Intracranial Cavity
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Following a head concussion the intracranial pressure increases due to the impact, which cannot be adequately relieved because of the stiffness of the skull. Popular strategies aimed at decompressing the head consist in the administration of osmotic agents and skull removal. The mechanical properties of bone can be affected by the administration of different solutions. If the malleability of skull is influenced by the osmotic agents that are administered to the patient then the pressure and volume in the intracranial cavity can also be modified following the treatment. In this thesis research, we hypothesize that administered osmotic agents can influence the mechanical properties of the skull, which can also impact the volume the cavity can hold and subsequently the pressure in the head. This premise was tested by modifying existing mathematical models compiled through two general MATLAB codes that allow the computation of a non-symbolic differential-algebraic initial value problem. Three main features were changed in comparison to current models: the skull's influence on the pressure and volume modulation was tested (inputs were obtained from skull tested under different solutions); pulsatile flow was accounted for on the creation and movement of cerebrospinal fluid; and the input on the mechanical behavior of the cranial vessels was accounted for through previously published continuum-mechanics vessel-behavior models. To complete the model, materials and mechanical properties were obtained through laboratory experiments as well as data collection from existing literature. From our bone test we were able to conclude that there are different factors that affect the mechanical properties of bone in various degrees. There is a mild statistical correlation (p-value 0.05) between the mechanical properties of bone obtained from different regions of the skull samples (2-14mm) and the DPBS and hDPBS solutions. Additionally there is a strong statistical difference (p-value 0.05) between the mechanical properties obtained from cross head speed (0.02, 0.002, and 0.004 (mm/s)) and solution variation (DI, DPBS and hDPBS). Finally, we were able to see that there seems to be a correlation between the mechanical properties of bone, the solution treatments and hypertension; although more test need to be developed to affirm this premise since our results are preliminary.