Novel Pattern Recognition Techniques for Improved Target Detection in Hyperspectral Imagery
Sakla, Wesam Adel
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A fundamental challenge in target detection in hyperspectral imagery is spectral variability. In target detection applications, we are provided with a pure target signature; we do not have a collection of samples that characterize the spectral variability of the target. Another problem is that the performance of stochastic detection algorithms such as the spectral matched filter can be detrimentally affected by the assumptions of multivariate normality of the data, which are often violated in practical situations. We address the challenge of lack of training samples by creating two models to characterize the target class spectral variability --the first model makes no assumptions regarding inter-band correlation, while the second model uses a first-order Markovbased scheme to exploit correlation between bands. Using these models, we present two techniques for meeting these challenges-the kernel-based support vector data description (SVDD) and spectral fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation (SFJTC). We have developed an algorithm that uses the kernel-based SVDD for use in full-pixel target detection scenarios. We have addressed optimization of the SVDD kernel-width parameter using the golden-section search algorithm for unconstrained optimization. We investigated a proper number of signatures N to generate for the SVDD target class and found that only a small number of training samples is required relative to the dimensionality (number of bands). We have extended decision-level fusion techniques using the majority vote rule for the purpose of alleviating the problem of selecting a proper value of s 2 for either of our target variability models. We have shown that heavy spectral variability may cause SFJTC-based detection to suffer and have addressed this by developing an algorithm that selects an optimal combination of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients of the signatures for use as features for detection. For most scenarios, our results show that our SVDD-based detection scheme provides low false positive rates while maintaining higher true positive rates than popular stochastic detection algorithms. Our results also show that our SFJTC-based detection scheme using the DWT coefficients can yield significant detection improvement compared to use of SFJTC using the original signatures and traditional stochastic and deterministic algorithms.