The Effect of Crystallographic Orientation and Thermo-mechanical Loading Conditions on the Phase Transformation Characteristics of Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys
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The effects of crystallographic orientation, temperature and heat treatment on superelastic response of Ni45Mn36.5Co5In13.5 single crystals were investigated. Superelastic experiments with and without various magnetic field were conducted under compression on a custom built magneto-thermo-mechanical test setup. Magnetostress, which is the difference in critical stress levels for the martensitic transformation with and without magnetic field, was determined as a function of crystallographic orientation, heat treatment and temperature parameters. Magnetostress of  crystals was observed to be much higher than that of  crystals with same heat treatment. Water quenched samples have the highest magnetostress among other samples with the same orientation that were oil quenched and furnace cooled. Crystal structure and atomic ordering of the samples were examined using Synchrotron High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction to rationalize observed differences. Magnetostress levels were also traced at various temperatures. A Quantum Design superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) was utilized to examine the magnetic properties of the material. The difference in saturation magnetization at various temperatures was analyzed to explain the temperature effect on magnetostress. Calculations based on the energy conversion from available magnetic energy to mechanical work output were used to predict the magnetic field dependence of magnetostress, which provides a guideline in material selection for the reversible magnetic field induced martensitic phase transformation. Isothermal superelastic response and load-biased shape memory response of Co48Ni33Al29 single crystals were determined as a function of temperature and stress, respectively. The aim of the work is to provide a new direction to understand the anomaly of transformation strain and hysteresis for ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Thermo-mechanical behavior of Co48Ni33Al29 single crystal was determined by a custom built thermo-mechanical compression setup based on an electromechanical test frame made by MTS. Transformation strain was observed to decrease with increasing applied stress in isothermal tests or increasing temperature in superelastic experiments. The variation in the lattice constant in martensite and austenite was verified to account for such a trend. It was also discovered that both thermal and stress hysteresis decreased with increasing applied stress and temperature, respectively. Multiple factors may be responsible for the phenomenon, including the increase of dislocation, the compatibility between martensite and austenite phase.