The Interactions of Zinc Thiolate Complexes and Exogenous Metal Species: Investigations of Thiolate Bridging and Metal Exchange
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Small molecule Zn(II) complexes containing N- and S- donor environments may serve as appropriate models for mimicking Zn protein sites, and thus, their reactions with heavy metal ions such as Pt(II) and W(0) may provide insight into possible adduct formation and zinc displacement. To study such possible interactions between zinc finger proteins and platinum-bound DNA, the ZnN2S2 dimeric complex, N,N?-bis(2- mercaptoethyl)-1,4-diazacycloheptane zinc (II), [Zn-1?]2, has been examined for Znbound thiolate reactivity in the presence of Pt(II) nitrogen ? rich compounds. The reactions yielded Zn/Pt di- and tri- nuclear thiolate-bridged adducts and metalexchanged products, which were initially observed via ESI-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of reaction solutions, and ultimately verified by comparison to the ESI-MS analysis, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography of directly synthesized complexes. The isolation of Zn-(?-SR)-Pt-bridged [(Zn(bme-dach)Cl)(Pt(dien))]Cl adduct from these studies is, to our knowledge, the first Zn-Pt bimetallic thiolatebridged model demonstrating the interaction between Zn-bound thiolates and Pt(II). Additional derivatives involving Pd(II) and Au(III) have been explored to parallel the experiments executed with Pt(II). The [Zn-1?]2 was then modified by cleavage with Na+[ICH2CO2]- to produce (N- (3-Thiabutyl)-N?-(3-thiapentaneoate)-1,4-diazacycloheptane) zinc(II), Zn-1?-Ac or ZnN2SS?O, and 1,4-diazacycloheptane-1,4-diylbis(3-thiapentanoato) zinc(II), Zn-1?-Ac2 or ZnN2S?2O2, monomeric complexes (where S = thiolate, S? = thioether). The [Zn-1?]2 di- and Zn-1?-Ac mono-thiolato complexes demonstrated reactivity towards labile-ligand tungsten carbonyl species, (THF)W(CO)5 and (pip)2W(CO)4, to yield, respectively, the [(Zn-1?-Cl)W(CO)4]- complex and the [(Zn-1?-Ac)W(CO)5]x coordination polymer. With the aid of CO ligands for IR spectral monitoring, the products were isolated and characterized spectroscopically, as well as by X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. To examine the potential for zinc complexes (or zinc-templated ligands) to possibly serve as a toxic metal remediation agents, Zn-1?-Ac and Zn-1?-Ac2 were reacted with Ni(BF4)2. The formation of Zn/Ni exchanged products confirmed the capability of ?free? Ni(II) to displace Zn(II) within the N-, S-, and O- chelate environment. The Zn/Ni exchanged complexes were analyzed by ESI-MS, UV-visible spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy of the acetate regions, and X-ray crystallography. They serve as foundation molecules for more noxious metal exchange / zinc displacement products.