Effects of composite flours on quality and nutritional profile of flour tortillas
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Obesity, glucose intolerance or insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure are now prevalent in the U.S. Increased intake of dietary fiber, omega- 3 fatty acids, and antioxidants may help prevent or manage these diseases. Tortillas are now part of the American diet, and are excellent carriers of higher amounts of fiber and other nutraceutical ingredients. This study was conducted to determine the effects of incorporating nutraceutical ingredients (flaxseed, sorghum bran, oat flour, buckwheat flour) on whole white wheat tortilla quality. Tortillas were prepared using a hot-press, gas-fired oven and were evaluated for physical properties, texture and shelf-stability. Objective and subjective tests demonstrated that whole white wheat and multigrain tortilla doughs were harder, rougher and less extensible than refined flour tortilla dough. Multigrain flour tortillas were thinner, larger and more translucent than the refined flour treatment. Incorporation of whole multigrain flours affected color of the product, giving darker tortillas. Tortilla flexibility decreased over time. After 16 days of storage rollability scores of tortillas decreased drastically. The most pronounced decrease in tortilla flexibility was observed for 5% sorghum bran, 10% buckwheat, and for the treatment prepared with of 5% flax, 5% sorghum, 5% oat, 5% buckwheat. The flexibility loss was higher for whole white wheat and multigrain tortillas than for the refined one which was confirmed with objective and subjective tests. To extend shelf stability of whole multigrain tortillas various amounts of commercial hydrocolloid and ?-amylase were added to the formulation. Tortillas with 75 ppm, 100 ppm of ?-amylase, 1% and 1.5% of gum retained their flexibility during 16 days of storage. Consumer acceptability of the whole multigrain tortillas (5% flaxseed, 5% sorghum bran, 5% oat, 5% buckwheat) was compared with commercial multigrain tortillas and whole white wheat flour tortillas using an untrained sensory panel. The multigrain tortillas were liked by the panel as much as the other samples. Prepared multigrain tortillas had improved nutritional value. Each multigrain treatment contained at least 3 g of dietary fiber, 0.29 g of ?- linolenic fatty acid, lignans and antioxidants. It makes possible to claim them as a ?good source of dietary fiber? and ?an excellent source of ?-linolenic fatty acid?. The formulations tested, together with future refinements, provide more options to consumers seeking healthier alternatives to refined wheat flour tortillas.