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dc.contributorRooney, Lloyd W.
dc.contributorWaniska, Ralph D.
dc.creatorGarza Casso, Jessica Beatriz
dc.description.abstractThe effects of different types and amounts of sodium bicarbonate (NBC) were evaluated during the processing of flour tortillas. Fat encapsulated NBC, BS199, BS195, BS193, BS180, BS184, HM50 and HM70, and different particle-sized, non-encapsulated NBC, grade 1, grade 2, grade 3 and Tortilla Blend TM, were tested at different levels and combinations. Longer shelf stable tortillas with lower opacity were obtained when the level of NBC decreased. Tortillas with higher opacity, diameter and volume were obtained using the correct types of NBC. Increased tortilla opacity, thickness and shelf stability were obtained using 3 g encapsulated NBC/kg compared to non-encapsulated NBC. Encapsulation of NBC enables a temperature-triggered leavening reaction during baking of tortillas. Combinations of different levels and ratios of fast- and slow-release NBC did not yield significant improvements in tortilla properties. Tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP, 0.15%) was added to modify protein functionality in tortilla dough containing less NBC. Tortillas with improved opacity, thickness and shelf stability resulted using TSPP with 3 g Grade 1 NBC/kg but similar improvements were not seen with encapsulated NBC. The effects of TSPP with low levels of NBC and slow reacting leavening acids were tested. Slight improvements in opacity were observed with sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) compared to sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS) using encapsulated and non-encapsulated NBC. Tortillas produced with these formulations have longer shelf stabilities with similar properties. This benefits the consumers. The manufacturing costs for ingredients are 1.2% less using 0.15% TSPP with 3 g non-encapsulated NBC/kg flour. The manufacturer gains not only by the reduced cost of ingredients but also by the increased ease of attaining target diameter of tortillas. This could also be accomplished by using less dough to form the tortilla.
dc.publisherTexas A&M University
dc.subjectsodium bicarbonate
dc.subjectwheat flour tortillas
dc.titleEffects of amounts and types of sodium bicarbonate in wheat flour tortillas

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