Enzyme catalyzed synthesis of structured phospholipids with conjugated linoleic acid and plant sterols
Hossen, Md Monjur
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Structured phospholipids with functional ingredients like conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and plant sterols to deliver their physiological effects in different food formulations were synthesized. The lipase and phospholipase A2 catalyzed enzymatic acidolysis reaction between phospholipids (PLs) and CLA was used for fatty acid modification, while the phospholipase D catalyzed transphosphatidylation reaction between PLs and sterol was used for head group modification. Enzymatic processes were an effective way to produce structured phospholipids. Screening of four lipases and immobilized phospholipase A2 and combination of lipase and phospholipase showed that only Lipozyme RM IM and Lipozyme TL IM were effective in incorporation of CLA into PLs. The maximum incorporation achieved by the latter enzyme was 16% with soy PLs in 72 h. The class of phospholipids had a significant effect on the rate of incorporation of CLA compare to source of PLs. A method capable of predicting the rate of incorporation of CLA into phospholipids was developed using response surface methodology. A three-level four-factor Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was used. The four factors selected were lipase dosage (Ed, wt.% of substrate), substrate ratio (Sr,mol%), reaction time (ti, h) and reaction temperature (Te,oC). The enzyme load and substrate ratio had a greater effect on the rate of incorporation than did reaction time and temperature. A polynomial regression equation was developed to predict the reaction rate. The new phosphatidyl derivative, phosphatidyl-sitosterol, was found to be synthesized by the transfer reaction of phosphatidyl residue from phosphatidylcholine to β-sitosterol by phospholipase D from Streptomyces sp. in biphasic medium. The novel phosphatidyl .sitosterol derivative was identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Plant sterols were modified to a more polar lipid class by synthesizing phospholipid derivatives of them. When these structured phospholipids were added to a whey protein based oil-in-water emulsion, the CLA incorporated structured phospholipids (CLA-PL) had higher heat stability and oxidative stability compared to the controls.