Chemical, color, and sensory attributes of sorghum bran-enhanced beef patties in a high oxygen environment
Jenschke, Blaine Edward
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Bottom rounds were shipped to the Rosenthal Meat Science and Technology Center, ground and enhanced with one of the following predetermined treatments: control; 0.4% sodium phosphates and 0.3% salt; 0.25% sorghum bran; 2.0% sorghum bran; 0.25% sorghum bran, 0.4% sodium phosphates and 0.3% salt; and 2.0% sorghum bran, 0.4% sodium phosphates, and 0.3% salt. The ground beef was formed into 226 g ground beef patties, packaged in an 80% O2 and 20% CO2 gaseous environment, and stored under retail display at 4 degrees for 0, 3, 6, or 9d. Measurements to determine rate and extent of oxidation, rate of discoloration, and sensory characteristics were taken to evaluate the effectiveness of sorghum bran. Patties containing the highest amount of sorghum bran had the lowest TBARS values over 9 days of storage, lower a* values, greater amounts of discoloration, darker lean color, and less cook loss (P<0.05) than control patties. Patties enhanced with the highest level of sorghum bran had lower beefy/brothy and bloody flavor aromatics, higher sorghum flavor, more bitter and burnt aftertaste, and more sandy/gritty textures (P<0.05) when compared to control patties. Patties containing the low amount of sorghum had lower TBARS values (P<0.05), but similar amounts of cook loss as the control patties. Patties containing a low sorghum level, 0.4% sodium phosphates (SP) and 0.3% salt (S) had lower (P<0.05) amounts of cook loss when compared to control patties. Patties containing low amounts of sorghum were similar to control patties in terms of redness while the addition of low sorghum, SP, and S decreased (P<0.05) the degree of redness. Patties containing low amounts of sorghum bran had similar amounts of discoloration compared to control (CONT) patties. Also, these had less bloody flavor aromatics (P<0.05), but were similar in sorghum flavor aromatics and bitter taste when compared to control patties. The addition of sorghum bran at low levels can retard oxidative rancidity in ground beef patties without causing detrimental color changes and negatively affecting sensory attributes, while patties enhanced with 2% sorghum bran have extensive discoloration and undesirable sensory attributes.