Applications of an electronic transformer in a power distribution system
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In electrical power distribution and power electronic applications, a transformer is an indispensable component which performs many functions. At its operating frequency (60/50 Hz), it is one of the most bulky and expensive components. The concept of the electronic transformer introduced previously has shown considerable reduction in size, weight, and volume by operating at a higher frequency. In this dissertation, the concept of the electronic transformer is further extended to the auto-connected phase-shifting type to reduce harmonics generated by nonlinear loads. It is shown that with the addition of primary side and secondary side AC/AC converters achieves phase-shifting. With the addition of converters, magnetic components are operated at a higher frequency to yield a smaller size and weight. Two types of auto-connected electronic transformer configurations are explored. In the first configuration, the secondary converter is eliminated and the output is suitable for rectifier type loads such as adjustable speed drives. In the second configuration, the secondary converter is added to obtain a sinusoidal phase-shifted AC output voltage. This approach is applicable in general applications. With the proposed approaches, the th and 7th harmonic in utility line currents, generated by two sets of nonlinear loads, are subtracted within the electronic transformer, thereby reducing the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the line current. The analysis and simulation results are presented. In the second part of the dissertation, the electronic transformer concept is applied to a telecommunication power supply (-48 VDC) system. The proposed approach consists of a matrix converter to convert the low frequency three-phase input AC utility to a high frequency AC output without a DC-link. The output of the matrix converter is then processed via a high frequency isolation transformer to produce -48 VDC. Digital control of the system ensures that the output voltage is regulated and the input currents are of high quality, devoid of low frequency harmonics and at near unity input power factor under varying load conditions. Due to the absence of DC-link electrolytic capacitors, the power density of the proposed rectifier is shown to be higher. Analysis, design example and experimental results are presented from a three-phase 208 V, 1.5 kW laboratory prototype converter.