Development of novel high-performance six-axis magnetically levitated instruments for nanoscale applications
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This dissertation presents two novel 6-axis magnetic-levitation (maglev) stages that are capable of nanoscale positioning. These stages have very simple and compact structure that is advantageous to meet requirements in the next-generation nanomanufacturing. The 6-axis motion generation is accomplished by the minimum number of actuators and sensors. The first-generation maglev stage is capable of generating translation of 300 ??m in x, y and z, and rotation of 3 mrad about the three orthogonal axes. The stage demonstrates position resolution better than 5 nm rms and position noise less than 2 nm rms. It has a light moving-part mass of 0.2126 kg. The total power consumption by all the actuators is only around a watt. Experimental results show that the stage can carry, orient, and precisely position an additional payload as heavy as 0.3 kg. The second-generation maglev stage is capable of positioning at the resolution of a few nanometers over a planar travel range of several millimeters. A novel actuation scheme was developed for the compact design of this stage that enables 6-axis force generation with just 3permanent-magnet pieces. Electromagnetic forces were calculated and experimentally verified. The complete design and construction of the second-generation maglev stage was performed. All the mechanical part and assembly fixtures were designed and fabricated at the mechanical engineering machine shop. The single moving part is modeled as a pure mass due to the negligible effect of the magnetic spring and damping. Classical as well as advanced controllers were designed and implemented for closed-loop feedback control. A nonlinear model of the force was developed and applied to cancel the nonlinearity of the actuators over the large travel range. Various experiments were conducted to test positioning, loading, and vibration-isolation capabilities. This maglev stage has a moving-part mass of 0.267 kg. Its position resolution is 4 nm over a travel range of 5 ?? 5 mm in the x-y plane. Its actuators are designed to carry and precisely position an additional payload of 2 kg. Its potential applications include semiconductor manufacturing, micro-fabrication and assembly, nanoscale profiling, and nano-indentation.