Examining Chinese Non-cruisers' Images and Constraints towards Cruising
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This study examined Chinese non-cruisers? images and constraints towards cruising. Seven hypotheses were proposed to explore the relationships among images of cruising, cruise constraints, desire, intention and socio-demographics. Both qualitative and quantitative methodologies were utilized. Based on the literature review, semi-structured interviews were first conducted to determine measurement items for constructs of interest. A convenience sample was then used to collect quantitative data for testing the proposed hypotheses. Factor analysis involved three scales including affective images of cruising, cognitive images of cruising and cruising constraints. Two factors, positive images and negative images, were found in the scale of cognitive images of cruising, and five factors ? intrapersonal constraints, not an option, structural constraint, time constraints and psychological constraints ? resulted from the scale of cruising constraints. However, no dimension resulted in the scale of affective images of cruising. Among the seven tested hypotheses, five of them were supported and two were rejected by the data. The results showed that: 1) images of cruising were negatively correlated with cruising constraints; 2) images of cruising had positive effects on desire to cruise; 3) cruising constraints had negative effects on both desire and intention; 4) demographics variables had no significant effects on either images of cruising or cruising constraints. Based on the results of this study, both theoretical and practical implications were suggested, and directions for future research were recommended.