Curriculum-Based Measurement as an Intervention: A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
Williams, Cara DeMaris
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A two-article dissertation format is provided. The first article is a literature review of Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) as an intervention and has three purposes: a) describe foundational components of CBM; b) explain CBM as an intervention versus an outcome measure; and c) examine connections between CBM and RtI. The second article, a meta-analytic study, addresses CBM in mathematics (CBMM) as an intervention and examines specific outcomes for students in grades K-12, including those in general education and special education, when detailed feedback was utilized, and when detailed feedback was not incorporated. The three research questions include: (a) What are the effects of implementing CBM-M as an intervention when digits correct are assessed for computation and concepts and applications? (b) What are the effects of CBM-M as an intervention when problems correct are assessed for computation and concepts and applications? and (c) What are the effects on overall mathematics achievement when CBM-M as an intervention is implemented? Upon completion of the meta-analysis, results indicated that when digits correct are assessed for computation, all students had a higher statistically significant effect when detailed feedback was utilized. More specifically, students in general education experience higher effects when detailed feedback is used, while students in special education benefit from CBM with or without detailed feedback. No studies were found for addressing concepts and applications with digits correct. When addressing problems correct for computation, all students had the most statistically significant benefit when detailed feedback was incorporated, yet students in general education had the most benefit. Much more data is needed in the area of problems correct for concepts and applications. From the data gathered, small non-statistically significant effects were found for all students without the inclusion of detailed feedback, yet a negative non-statistically significant effect was found for students in special education. Not enough data was found to assess the use of detailed feedback. In terms of overall mathematical achievement, data was only found for the inclusion of detailed feedback. Results indicated that students in general education achieve small statistically significant effects, while students in special education did not show an effect at all. Overall, using detailed feedback produced higher statistically significant effects for students in both general and special education. Most research has been conducted in the area of computation for grades 3-6. Much more research is needed in the areas of concepts and applications, overall mathematical achievement, and at the secondary grade levels. Both articles, the literature review and meta-analytic study, are discussed separately.